Signal transduction

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  • Causes Of Cancer: A Deadly Disease

    Like many other pathways the cAMP intracellular pathway is responsible for a wide range of cross talks. cAMP receives its signal initially from the G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR). GPCR is heterotrimeric protein that has a 7-transmembrane protein. It contains a beta, gamma, and alpha subunit attached to the transmembrane protein. When an extracellular signal (hormonal, cytokine, etc.) is received, the beta and gamma subunit detach from the alpha subunit. The G-alpha subunit binds to a membrane bound protein called adenylyl cyclase (AC). AC and the G-alpha subunit interact with ATP which creates a cAMP molecule. Isozymes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase will then degrade cAMP to AMP. The protein that carries out the effects of cAMP is protein kinase A (PKA). PKA is an important enzyme in the products that are formed in the cell. It is a tetramer that consists of two catalytic subunits and two regulatory subunits. cAMP must activate PKA. It will do this by binding to a regulatory subunit. So it will take two cAMP to bind to both PKA regulatory subunits. When one cAMP binds to one PKA regulatory subunit it detaches from the PKA tetramer. The catalytic subunit will then be active. The active subunit can enter the nucleus and…

    Words: 1262 - Pages: 6
  • Rhodopsin In ROS Membranes Case Study

    These lipid rafts recruit fatty-acyl modified signaling proteins, increasing their effective concentration and affecting their function. Thus, such protein compartmentalization could be a universal mechanism for most adaptive cellular signal transduction (Simons k Toomre d 2000). In case of rhodopsin, visualization of this light receptor in the native ROS membranes by high resolution AFM indicated that it is not distributed evenly but rather localized into specific nanodomains, where it forms…

    Words: 1082 - Pages: 4
  • Calcium Signaling

    Calcium ions are vital for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytoplasm they use allosteric effects caused by indirect transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors. Calcium signalling is cause by gradients across the plasma membrane, as the resting concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm is normally kept ˷100 nM, compared to the extracellular concentration which is ˷1.5mM. To continue low concentration within the cell, Ca2+ signals can be generated either from extracellular…

    Words: 1516 - Pages: 7
  • Clinical Question 2: Genetics And Oncology

    malignant melanoma. How does abrogation of each pathway contribute to disease? One of the pathways that is often discussed in multiple melanoma is the MAPK or the Mitogen activated Protein Kinase pathway. This pathway begins with an extracellular signal which activates RAS which effects RAF followed MEK and ERK proteins. The external stimuli that normally activates this pathway is a growth factor. The outcome of this pathways leads to the cell to be signaled to stimulate growth, proliferation…

    Words: 1562 - Pages: 7
  • Ikb Research Paper

    I-Kappa-B-alpha which is often abbreviated IkBa is a protein whose role is to mask the nuclear localization signals to inhibit the NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa beta) proteins by keeping them in inactive states and isolating them in the cytoplasm, this inhibits the NF-kB transcription factors and blocks the NF-kB transcription factors from binding with DNA. NF-kB is a protein complex that is responsible for controlling cytokine production, transcription of DNA, cell survival, and plays a key role…

    Words: 1530 - Pages: 7
  • Dietary Restriction In Ageing Essay

    Topic: Molecular mechanism of dietary restriction in ageing Title: Dietary restriction and mTOR signalling pathway in lifespan extension Dietary restriction (DR), which is reduced intake of all dietary constituents except vitamins and minerals, was first shown to extend the lifespan of rats 80 years ago (McCay, 1930). Since then, many studies have proven that DR can extend longevity on wide range of taxa (Fontana et al., 2010). In addition, research done on animal models reveals that there…

    Words: 1757 - Pages: 8
  • Case Study Of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) – the most common form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia – is a chronic, progressive fibrotic lung disease that affects older adults. IPF is characterized by a continuing decline in lung function, poor survival, and limited therapeutic options. The invasive proliferation of fibrous tissue and scarring of the interstitium lead to a decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) (Richeldi et al. 2014). IPF has a poor prognosis; the median survival for the disease is…

    Words: 943 - Pages: 4
  • CTNB1 Case Study

    subsequent inhibition of GSK3β, CK1 phosphorylates CTNNB1 at the Ser45 residues, while PKA phosphorylate CTNNB1 at the Ser552 and Ser675 residues. Both PKA and CK1 act to activate CTNNB1 to success to combine the TCF/LEF transcriptional activity. In addition, CTNNB1 phosphorylation can be stimulated by the FSH via activation of PKA that motivates the transcriptional activity of CTNNB1 (Law et al., 2013). In other hand, phosphorylate CTNNB1 associated with TCF-4 transcriptional activity and…

    Words: 942 - Pages: 4
  • Cause And Effect Of Paxillin

    There are many diseases out there that effect the lungs, and can be life-threatening. They affect millions of people every year. Some examples would be lung cancer and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cancer is a disease that, among other things, effects the communication between cells. Acute respiratory distress syndrome prevents oxygen from getting into the blood. With so many people being at risk, it can lead some people to wonder why the cure hasn’t already been created. There are many…

    Words: 1303 - Pages: 6
  • Analysis Of The ZIKA Virus

    One of the viruses that extend in massive areas of the world, and compel the scientists to look again for this virus is a ZIKA virus. As a result of the rapid prevalence of a ZIKA virus in Asia, Africa and America, it classifies now as an emerging virus, on the other hand, the lack of biological research leads to Increasing the cases of ZIKV in the world. This project sheds light on the mystery novel that allows ZIKV invasion and infection the host cells. A penetration process of ZIKA virus…

    Words: 1205 - Pages: 5
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