Signal transduction

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    Cell Communication

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    membrane. Cells send signals through steps of signal transduction pathway. Cells communicate through chemical messages long distance and in a short radius. Different Types of Signaling In long distance and short distance signaling there are many different types of signaling used for communication between cells. The local communication is done through paracrine signaling or synaptic signaling; long distance signaling is called hormonal signaling. Within these two ways of communication, specific chemicals go to their assigned cell and have a given response. Paracrine Signaling A secreting cell will…

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    Like many other pathways the cAMP intracellular pathway is responsible for a wide range of cross talks. cAMP receives its signal initially from the G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR). GPCR is heterotrimeric protein that has a 7-transmembrane protein. It contains a beta, gamma, and alpha subunit attached to the transmembrane protein. When an extracellular signal (hormonal, cytokine, etc.) is received, the beta and gamma subunit detach from the alpha subunit. The G-alpha subunit binds to a membrane…

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    These lipid rafts recruit fatty-acyl modified signaling proteins, increasing their effective concentration and affecting their function. Thus, such protein compartmentalization could be a universal mechanism for most adaptive cellular signal transduction (Simons k Toomre d 2000). In case of rhodopsin, visualization of this light receptor in the native ROS membranes by high resolution AFM indicated that it is not distributed evenly but rather localized into specific nanodomains, where it forms…

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    B Anthrax Essay

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    sensed by a receptor that is located on a second macrophage, which will assemble and activate a complex of molecules known as the inflammasome. The inflammasome then releases into the bloodstream an immune-activating molecule known as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). IL-1beta will alert other macrophages throughout the body to mobilize and increase their resistance to anthrax-induced cell death, apoptosis. Researchers have completed multiple experiments using genetically altered mice and inhibitor…

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    missegregation of large numbers of chromosomes results in rapid cell death. It is self-evident that a minimum number of genes and/or chromosomes must be required for viability. Cells, this includes human cancer cells that exhibit chromosomal instability, in which the mitotic is completely inactivated by siRNA (small interfering RNA). (5)Tumors are associated with having a weakened mitotic checkpoint. A frequent occurrence in human tumor and cell lines is the inability to sustain mitotic check…

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    Calcium Signaling

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    Calcium ions are vital for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytoplasm they use allosteric effects caused by indirect transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors. Calcium signalling is cause by gradients across the plasma membrane, as the resting concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm is normally kept ˷100 nM, compared to the extracellular concentration which is ˷1.5mM. To continue low concentration within the cell, Ca2+ signals can be generated either from extracellular…

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    alternative pathways. Examples of inverse agonists include cimetidine and ranitidine on H2 receptors, haloperidol on D2 receptors, prazosin on α1-adrenergic receptors, timolol on β2-adrenergic receptors, clozapine on D2 and 5HT2C receptors5, GABAA receptor (such as benzodiazepines) inverse agonists have anxiogenic effects (for example, Ro15-4513) or convulsive effects (certain beta-carbolines)6,7 and yohimbine on α2A-adrenergic receptors8. Undeniably, many drugs previously believed to be…

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    malignant melanoma. How does abrogation of each pathway contribute to disease? One of the pathways that is often discussed in multiple melanoma is the MAPK or the Mitogen activated Protein Kinase pathway. This pathway begins with an extracellular signal which activates RAS which effects RAF followed MEK and ERK proteins. The external stimuli that normally activates this pathway is a growth factor. The outcome of this pathways leads to the cell to be signaled to stimulate growth, proliferation…

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    Ikb Research Paper

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    I-Kappa-B-alpha which is often abbreviated IkBa is a protein whose role is to mask the nuclear localization signals to inhibit the NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa beta) proteins by keeping them in inactive states and isolating them in the cytoplasm, this inhibits the NF-kB transcription factors and blocks the NF-kB transcription factors from binding with DNA. NF-kB is a protein complex that is responsible for controlling cytokine production, transcription of DNA, cell survival, and plays a key role…

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    Protein Synthesis

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    Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) regulate IIS function. In Drosophila melanogaster, there are seven Drosophila ILP (dilp) genes. One of which is dilp2, a gene that encodes a peptide that closely mimics human insulin. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) are analogous in function to pancreatic β cells in mammals. In Drosophila hemolymph, IPCs are necessary for carbohydrate homeostasis. When IPCs are explicitly removed, developmental delays occur growth is hindered. Late-life mortality is diminished in…

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