In such scenario, activation energy could be lost if the neighboring rhodopsin, the one not associated with Gtα would be excited by a photon. However, this loss could be prevented if asymmetric rhodopsin activation exists. In fact, ligand induced allosteric modulation between receptor protomers within the dimer has been demonstrated for other GPCRs. Thus, conformational changes induced by a photon in the rhodopsin monomer that does not physically interact with Gtα would induce structural evolution towards Meta II active state in the Gtα-precoupled rhodopsin (Neri et al., 2010). Such mechanism would be critical to enhance efficiency of rhodopsin activation and potentially its desensitization. Membrane MD simulations of a rhodopsin dimer revealed that rhodopsin activation can occur in an asymmetric manner where structural changes occurring in the photoactivated rhodopsin stimulate conformational rearrangements in the neighboring, not activated rhodopsin involving disruption of an “ionic lock”, movement of helix TM3 and opening of the G-protein binding domain thus triggering an evolution toward the active Meta II state of rhodopsin. In support of such possibility…
layer. The photovoltaic performance was measured in the air inside the glove box. The current density–voltage (J–V) curve of the device was obtained using a computer-controlled Keithley 4200 source measurement unit under AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2) simulated by an Oriel solar simulator (Oriel 91160A). The measurements were repeated thrice to eliminate experimental error.
Results and discussion
Synthesis, characterization and physical properties
The monomers required for the polymer…
Polymer - A word, which is connote for large molecules (that a molecule made from simple repeating units called monomers). The monomers are main building block of polymers. Polymers play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday human life because of the extraordinary range of properties. Polymers are among the most widely used and important type of materials today.
Polymers have been with us from the beginning of time; they form the very basis (building blocks) of life. Animals, plants all…
The synthesis of Aa-g-poly(MAA) involve the optimization of various reaction conditions like initiator concentration, monomer concentration, crosslinker concentration, solvent concentration and pH. After the optimization of various reaction parameters the replications were carried-out in triplicates for the reproducibility of the results and statistical of the results obtained. It was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 10. Statistical results of the…
In addition polymerization, polymer is formed by addition monomer without eliminating any product at specified temperature, pressure and presence of catalyst. Different methods of addition polymerization are free radical polymerization, cationic polymerization, anionic polymerization and coordination polymerization. Mainly addition polymerization occurs in the monomers having double bound. This process has three stages initiation, propagation,…
the average person. To start, “The simplest definition of a polymer is a useful chemical made of many repeating units” (“The Basics”). Further, polymers are not limited to just plastics, but all types of plastic are polymers (“Plastics”). Some examples of polymers include cellulose and DNA (“Plastics”). Plastics are used everywhere in life today, and understanding the way that they are formed is important to understand, as it connects to modern issues such as recycling.
Notably, polymers can be…
Everything on Earth is made of carbon. Due to this complex molecules are formed. These complex molecules are macromolecules. Macromolecules are polymers, formed by dehydration synthesis. Dehydration Synthesis is when monomers are combines and water is removed. There are four types of macromolecules, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. With a structural components such as glucose and sugar.…
Plastics have played a major role in shaping modern society, ultimately improving the quality of life. Making up most things man-made, plastics surround us every day. They possess unique characteristics; plastics can be tough and rigid yet still flexible and can be opaque yet transparent. The building blocks of plastics are small organic molecules often known as monomers, which then join to other monomers creating long molecule chains called polymers in a process called…
The structure and function of carbohydrates (25 Marks)
Carbohydrates are made from Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O). A monosaccharide is the monomer sub unit of carbohydrates and can be joined together through a condensation reaction to form a glycosidic bond between the two monomers which is known as a disaccharide.
The above diagram shows a condensation reaction taking place. There is a reaction between two monomer sub units, in this case α-glucose and ethanol, which involves the…
Fun Facts about Polypropylene:
In 2013, the global market for polypropylene was around 55 million metric tons.
Invented in 1954 by Giulio Natta of Milan, Italy
It can be represented by this symbol:
Objects made of polypropylene
Structure of Polypropylene
Chemical Formula: (C3H6)n
Polypropylene is a polymer* with a crystalline structure.
- For the crystalline region, many monomer propylene will bond together…