Plus or Minus Two

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    George Miller’s magical number 7, plus or minus two, helps confirm the capacity of short term memory (Miller, 1956). Most people 18 and over can hold 5 to 9 items in their short term memory (Miller, 1956). Miller believed that short term memory could only hold his magic number because of the limited “slots” in which memory could be placed in the brain. Miller reached this conclusion by getting the participants of the initial study to listen to a number of tones that were different by pitch. Every sound was produced solely, and the participant was asked to match each sound corresponding to the other tones that they had already heard. This was done by giving each sound a number. When the experiment ran on through around 6 or 7 tones, the participants…

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    Introduce Memory Analysis

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    Introduce memory The analysis of human memory spans as far as 2000 years ago to Aristotle 's efforts to comprehend memory in his thesis "De Memoria" (Bloch, 2014). Following Aristotle, many advancements have been made in the knowledge of the human memory, and in 1878 the first scientific approach to studying memory was developed by Herman Ebbinghaus (Nadel & Nadel, 2005). Ebbinghaus categorised the three individual types of memory as sensory, long-term and short-term. (Ebbinghaus, 2013).…

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    by many psychologists for many years to discover the factors of cognitive. Many past studies have concluded that short term memory is very limited and can only hold up to just a few seconds of information. In order to retain information for a longer period of time, many techniques such as repeating information, can possibly be converted into long term memory. The purpose of this study is to determine which gender can score higher on a short term memory assessment when placed under a time…

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    University. The participants comprised of 1 male and 2 female students with their age ranging from 18-21 years old. With regard to deficiencies, the male student reported that he has color-blindness, while the two female students did not report any deficiency. Apparatus This digit span experiment was conducted in the Social Sciences Laboratories at UCI. All three participants carried out the experiment through a computer software, MatLab. In order to implement the experiment, the stimuli used…

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    Quiz Technique

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    hand. One of these techniques includes studying using online games that are set up as quizzes in order to be constantly exposed to the information in a more entertaining fashion. Mini quiz games such as “Quizlet,” “Kahoots”, or “Quizizz” may be beneficial study methods because they provide visual and repetitive strategies that can help incorporate information into working and short term memory in order to recall the information at a later point, possibly during a test or exam ("Quizlet", 2016;…

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    which is ranked at the 8th percentile and is classified as the Very Low range. Julian has a weakness in his ability to maintain information and reproduce it in the same sequence above his age expectation and higher than same age peers; indicating below average working memory and memory span abilities. Processing Speed Index His ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention was measured by the Processing Speed Index. On the…

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    Assessment: Pediatric Early Elementary Examination, PEEX2 The purpose of this exam is to gain a comprehensive picture of a child and, their neurodevelopmental growth. The exam is used to identify specific areas of weakness that warrant further assessment. Summary: Trent is a right handed 8.11year old boy. He seemed relaxed to begin the testing session and was engaged with the examiner, Mr. Mel Levine. Throughout the testing session, Trent responded to conversations, was flexible to prompts,…

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    Correcting False Memories

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    They argue that “errors first must be detected to be corrected; consistent with this argument, two experiments showed that false memories were nearly eliminated when conditions facilitated comparisons between participants’ errors and corrective feedback (e.g., immediate trial-by-trial feedback that allowed direct comparisons between their responses and the correct information)” (Mullet & Marsh, 2015, p. 403). “People frequently make errors during learning or when they attempt to retrieve…

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    Cognitive Chunking Theory

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    phonological loop, visuospatial, central executive system and episode buffer. In past research done by Miller he found working memory capacity to be roughly around seven, however now it is believed that working memory is less than that. Long-term memory is the next stage and it has infinite capacity. There are many methods that are used to enhance long-term memory such as repeating and practicing. An important method that is being tested in this experiment is the ability to do chunking. Chunking…

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    The working memory model, as introduced by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974, outlined two distinct components: the phonological loop (PL) which deals with auditory information, and the visuospatial sketchpad which is concerned with visuo-spatial data. The PL consists of two parts, the phonological store and the articulatory control process (ACP). According to Baddeley and Hitch, auditory information is held in the store for about two seconds while the ACP recycles this information, through…

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