The Magical Number Seven

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    Apparatus This digit span experiment was conducted in the Social Sciences Laboratories at UCI. All three participants carried out the experiment through a computer software, MatLab. In order to implement the experiment, the stimuli used were strings of varied number of letters and randomized color condition or not, which were manipulated based on the experimental design. After all the…

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    has been studied by many psychologists for many years to discover the factors of cognitive. Many past studies have concluded that short term memory is very limited and can only hold up to just a few seconds of information. In order to retain information for a longer period of time, many techniques such as repeating information, can possibly be converted into long term memory. The purpose of this study is to determine which gender can score higher on a short term memory assessment when placed…

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    Introduce Memory Analysis

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    Introduce memory The analysis of human memory spans as far as 2000 years ago to Aristotle 's efforts to comprehend memory in his thesis "De Memoria" (Bloch, 2014). Following Aristotle, many advancements have been made in the knowledge of the human memory, and in 1878 the first scientific approach to studying memory was developed by Herman Ebbinghaus (Nadel & Nadel, 2005). Ebbinghaus categorised the three individual types of memory as sensory, long-term and short-term. (Ebbinghaus, 2013).…

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    Once the information is presented in the instructor’s lecture, it is time to begin the studying process. George Armitage Miller, one of the founders of what is known as “Cognitive Psychology” conducted studies on the limits of our capacity for human processing. His findings were published in 1956 in his paper The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information. Miller found the average human learns in “chunks.” When we first hear information, it is…

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    George Miller’s magical number 7, plus or minus two, helps confirm the capacity of short term memory (Miller, 1956). Most people 18 and over can hold 5 to 9 items in their short term memory (Miller, 1956). Miller believed that short term memory could only hold his magic number because of the limited “slots” in which memory could be placed in the brain. Miller reached this conclusion by getting the participants of the initial study to listen to a number of tones that were different by pitch.…

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    articulatory suppression effect on comprehension (Baddeley, Elridge & Lewis, 1981). Counting and mental arithmetic are other functions which the PL is very involved with. Nairne and Healy (1983) got their subjects to count backwards and found that subjects were likely to skip repeated digits (e.g. 99, 88, etc.) and multiples of 10 (e.g. 90, 80, etc.). They suggested that this was due to the phonological similarity of the prefix (ninety, eighty) to the most recently articulated number and caused…

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    Cognitive Chunking Theory

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    in, which we hold and manipulate information in a conscious attention through a phonological loop, visuospatial, central executive system and episode buffer. In past research done by Miller he found working memory capacity to be roughly around seven, however now it is believed that working memory is less than that. Long-term memory is the next stage and it has infinite capacity. There are many methods that are used to enhance long-term memory such as repeating and practicing. An important method…

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    Working Memory Index On the Working Memory Index, which measures his ability to temporarily store and perform a set of cognitive operations on information that requires divided attention and the management of the limited capacity of short-term memory, Julian scored in the Low Average range on both subtests. On the first subtest, Digit Span, he was verbally presented with three sets of numbers. On the first set, Julian had to repeat the numbers back to the examiner in the correct order. On the…

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    Quiz Technique

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    Health Science Graduate students at Seton Hall University can employ different techniques when preparing for exams to improve their academic performance. They are able to utilize a variety of tools and strategies to prepare for tests that may allow them to recall and manipulate information according to the task at hand. One of these techniques includes studying using online games that are set up as quizzes in order to be constantly exposed to the information in a more entertaining fashion. Mini…

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    Correcting False Memories

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    There is a distinct line between what is real and what is stored in our memory. False memories are memories for events which never actually occurred. These false memories can come from different sources and take on different forms. “Often times false memories come from our natural impulse to integrate several pieces of information into a single, coherent memory, and we misremember what individual pieces were learned apart from the whole” (Radvansky, 2011, p. 254). In the articles, Correcting…

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