Microtubule

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    Microtubules, which are made of protein subunits called tubulin, are the thickest of all three cytoskeletal filaments. Microtubules are mainly serving as the paths along which vesicles are guided in their travels to various destinations, and are responsible for associating with motor proteins attached to the vesicles. Microtubules can also expand or shrink in length in order to establish dynamic structures that can efficiently change the internal organization of the cell, and capture organelles through the cytosol. Intermediate filaments are made up of the protein keratin. Their primary function is to strengthen the internal structure of a cell. Microfilaments are the smallest among the three cytoskeletal filaments. They consist of protein actin. Microfilaments are dynamic structures that can rapidly disassemble or assemble themselves, and thus microfilaments enable the cell to move efficiently. Cilia and flagella that are made of microtubules are critical in cellular locomotion. Cilia move back and forth like the oars of a rowboat while eukaryotic…

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    Microtubules are components of the cytoskeleton of the cell that are made up of tubulin. They are the largest component of the cytoskeleton which is a reason why much of cytoskeleton research centers focus on this specific element. In this paper entitled Microtubules Negatively Regulate Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β Cells, understanding the role these microtubules play is key in understanding the research findings. Microtubules are made up of protofilaments that are composed of a dimer:…

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    assembly checkpoints (Elledge, 1996). The cellular spindle apparatus includes the spindle microtubules, associated proteins, and any centrosomes or asters present at the spindle poles. The dynamic lengthening and shortening of spindle microtubules (Mitchison and Kirschner 1984) determines to a large extent the shape of the mitotic spindle and promotes the proper alignment of chromosomes at the spindle midzone. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) associate with microtubules at the midzone and…

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    Vincristine Research Paper

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    Wilms' tumor, multiple myeloma, rhabdomyosarcoma, ewings sarcoma, chronic leukaemia, thyroid cancer and brain tumours. Its molecular target: Highly dynamic mitotic-spindle microtubules are among the most successful targets for anticancer therapy. Microtubule-target drugs, that are previously considered to work primarily by increasing or decreasing the cellular microtubule mass, include paclitaxel and Vinca alkaloids. Although these sound effects might have a part in their chemotherapeutic…

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    reproduction. Movement of cells are supported by cytoskeleton system of the cells. The cyctoskeleton system are composed of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. However, for unicellular organisms such as Paramecium, the movement of cells are regulated through cilia or flagella. Cilia can be found in a large quantity on the plasma membrane of the organisms. They move around by paddling back and forth like a boat. They surrounded the plasma membrane of unicellular organisms.…

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    Cell Division Essay

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    chromosomes could be seen. However, when Aurora B activity was restored, but Kif2b activity was not, proper alignment of chromosome could still not be seen (Bakhoum, et al., 2008). This suggests that Kif2b should be downstream of Aurora-B in helping the chromosomes align properly. Some tension is produced in the spindle arrays when they interact with the kinetochores at the chromosome. In order to correct the missegregation of chromosomes, this tension in the spindle arrays need to be…

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    surface in eukaryotic cells they are covered by a plasma membrane. They are formed from a stable bundle of microtubules; these grow from an area in the cytoplasm called the basal body. Microtubules are made of a protein called tubulin, alpha has a slightly negative charge and beta has a slightly positive charge. Cilia use repetitive movement to move fluids over the surface of a cell or to move a single cell. One area where cilia are abundant is the respiratory tract, there are more than a…

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    Its structure consists of microtubules and strong fibers, which is a part of the cells skeleton. Its function is to organize the chromosomes and maneuver them during the mitosis. The spindle grows between the centrosomes as they move apart. The nucleolus where ribosomes are created diminishes leading to the nucleus preparing to break down. In late prophase the mitotic spindle starts to apprehend and organize the chromosomes which include: the chromosomes condensing becoming compact, the break…

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    Essay On Paclitaxel

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    Current studies have found that taking omeprazole (prilosec) in combination with paclitaxel, will increase the effectiveness of paclitaxel as an anti-cancer agent. Paclitaxel is an effective form of cancer therapy that treats various kinds of cancer from ovarian to lung cancer. Paclitaxel works by promoting the polymerization of microtubules and prevents depolymerization to have a cytotoxic affect on cells (DeAngelis LM, et al., 1995). Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used clinically for…

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    Cilia Essay

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    Each doublet contains two rows of dynein (outer and inner) radical spokes which link inner microtubules with the outer ones and nexin links linking outer microtubules to one another (refer to figure 2) (6,7). The outer dynein arms and nexin have an important role in cilia motility. Cilia Motility The function of cilia is relied on its motility consisting of sliding microtubules causing bending movement, resulting in mucus propulsion and aiding mucociliary clearance. Bitter receptors are also…

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