Essay On Microtubules

1932 Words 8 Pages
Microtubules, which are made of protein subunits called tubulin, are the thickest of all three cytoskeletal filaments. Microtubules are mainly serving as the paths along which vesicles are guided in their travels to various destinations, and are responsible for associating with motor proteins attached to the vesicles. Microtubules can also expand or shrink in length in order to establish dynamic structures that can efficiently change the internal organization of the cell, and capture organelles through the cytosol. Intermediate filaments are made up of the protein keratin. Their primary function is to strengthen the internal structure of a cell. Microfilaments are the smallest among the three cytoskeletal filaments. They consist of protein …show more content…
It is bound by the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope separates the internal environment of the nucleus from the cytoplasm, supports the structure of the nucleus, and regulates the substances coming into and out of the nucleus. Nuclear pores are tiny openings on the nuclear envelope, allowing in ions and small molecules while shutting out unnecessary large molecules. Chromosomes, which are located inside the nucleus, are made up of DNA which contain all the genetic information and instructions for cell development. When cells are not in division, the chromosomes are organized into complexed structures called chromatin. The nucleolus is a distinct region of the nucleus that devotes to produce ribosomal RNA, which works with certain proteins into partially assembled ribosomes, which then exit through the nuclear pores and become fully assembled in the cytoplasm. The nucleus also regulates the synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm. RNA molecules, which carry the genetic information stored in the DNA, pass through the nuclear pores and then convey the information to ribosomes, which are protein-manufacturing units in the cytoplasm.


Ribosomes are cell organelles that are made up of RNA and proteins. They are fundamental in assembling the proteins of the cell. Ribosomes are commonly made up of one large subunit and one small subunit. The two subunits attach to each other during protein synthesis.
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Thylakoid membranes, which are arranged like stacked pancakes, are inside the envelope. Chlorophyll, which plays a crucial role in capturing sunlight, is embedded in the thylakoid membranes. Chlorophyll is observed to be green because it only reflects green wavelengths. The blue and red light, which can both be absorbed by the chlorophyll, are used to produce ATP, which are further used by enzymes around the thylakoids to synthesize carbohydrates. Photosynthesis is an important process that manufactures sugars for plant cells. In the process, light energy is used to manufacture sugars and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen produced in photosynthesis is essential for sustaining the life of human beings and other living things. Mitochondria also depend on the oxygen gas produced by photosynthesis to generate

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