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    A huge amount of interest has been placed in studying oxytocin, not only on for its implication in female reproduction, but also for modulation of several aspects of social behavior. This review will first focus on mammalian organisms. In most of the experiments discussed below, microdialysis was used to measure the level of OT and AVP because of its ability to directly monitor both neuropeptides when released in the brain (Landgraf & Newmann, 2004). a) Social bonding A study on the behavioral effects of OT and AVP was done using prairie and montane vole models because they are genetically similar but, socially different. Prairie voles are social and form long-lasting bond with their mates and both parents are involved in the young care. In contrast with prairie voles, montane voles are solitary and do not for any social attachment. (McGraw & Young, 2010). There are great models to examine the brain mechanisms that is involved in the promotion of social contact. Several results were obtained while studying the effect of AVP released in the male prairie vole right after cohabitation or coupling with a female. A surge in the development of pair bond and paternal care was observed in prairie male voles but, more aggression was observed toward males they were not familiar with (Churchland & Winkielman, 2012). Male montane voles only displayed partner preference but no social attachment. The administration of an AVP antagonist completely showed opposite results to the ones listed…

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