then analysing the specific results of Brazil.
NDVI stands for Normalised Difference Vegetation Index and usually derived from satellite data, for landsat data this is usually thirty metres above the ground, to classify land cover change over a continental scale (DeFries and Townshend, 1994). When light hits a leaf part of the light spectrum is reflected back to the observer (Peñuelas and Filella, 1998:1) and the NDVI is calculated using two variables from this light spectrum, the amount of red and near infrared reflection (NIR), as NDVI= NIR-red/NIR+red…
zoospore or water, with an average of 10 drops being placed per leaf. Leaves labeled for zoospore inoculation were treated with 10 drops of zoospores (10ul) and those labeled for control were treated with 10 drops of sterile soil water (10uL) using proper pipette technique. Tubs were then sealed, stored and covered in the dark for 7 days at approximately 25°C. Data measurements were conducted by hand, and included the frequency of necrosis as a measure of number of potential infections and the…
There are two ways this process can be carried out; anaerobic or aerobic. Plants normally aerobically respite but in case of little to no exposure to air, anaerobic respiration is done. The process of cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria of cells.
All functions and structures in plants have been adapted to optimise the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Plants have a root system, a stem, branches and leaves. The roots primary job is to absorb water and the nutrients…
The main objective of this study was to determine whether the rate of cavitation in xylem channels correlates with tree height by measuring the water tension from leaves at the top against leaves from the bottom of Acer Platanoides (Norway Maple) trees. We hypothesized that water tension would be higher at the top of trees than at the bottom. The secondary focus was to determine if varying water tension would affect the structural composition of leaves. In order to identify a relationship, we…
First CO2 enters leaves through the stoma via diffusion. An enzyme, known as Rubisco, will fix the CO2 to form a 3 carbon compound (Khan academy [accessed 2017]). This 3 carbon compound will eventually be converted to sugar and become maple syrup (Perkins and van den Berg 2009). Plants that follow this metabolic pathway are known as C3 plants (Khan academy [accessed 2017]). It is important to note that Rubisco prefers to fix carbon 12 over carbon 13; therefore 13CO2 is more likely to diffuse out…
design with five biological replicates of each treatment in the green house. An equal amount of water was applied to the pots to maintain optimal soil moisture depending on plant and soil conditions. Drought stress was applied by stopping irrigation after 21 days of germination. Before harvesting the third or fourth leaf of a plant, the plants were used for all in situ measurements as growth parameters. The plants were sampled on 0, 3rd and 6th day after stress application.
1.4. Assessment of…
density of young and old leaves has not significantly different densities. The age of the leaf does not аffect and do not correlate with stomatal density. Because, when the leaf is a baby leaf it makes all the stomata and as leaf growth it just pulls apart from each other. Stomata has an essential rоle in all plаnts. Stomata helps to maintain balance between water and gas exchanges. The word stomatа come from Greek and meаns opening. The structurе оf the stоmata cоnsists оf the guard cеlls аnd…
Leaf science: how to find the hidden colours Rationale:
To understand how leaves change colour and why they are green. This is aimed at moving Billy from pre-theoretical knowledge to sound scientific understanding of chlorophyll while understanding the world around him, in a visual way.
Coffee filter paper
A range of leaves, including autumn colours
10 sandwich bags
but there is a book written around that time that is quite the contrary to all these stereotypes. The Outsiders is a novel written about 50 years ago that really makes you read between the lines, the most important example of this being the outburst of poetry from Ponyboy when he and Johnny were at the church. “‘Too bad it couldn’t stay like that all the time.’ ‘Nothing gold can stay.’ I was remembering a poem I’d read once. ‘What?’ ‘Nature’s first green is gold, Her hardest hue to hold. Her…
Hazard Risk Precautions Taken
Broken glass Getting stabbed Be cautious of surroundings
Open Shoes Rocks crushing feet Wear closed-in shoes
Heat stroke/ Sunburn Fainting, Dehydration Drink a lot of water, use sunscreen
Slippery surface Falling down and harming self.
Part A – Results
Scientific Name and Common name of mangrove species identified Descriptions of features used to identify species Recording of position of species along transect (metres)