Distillation

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    The light extinction method was developed based on the works of Piere Bouger, August Beer, and Johann Heinrich Lambert (1760). Bouger observed for the first time that the light intensity of a candle decreases when it passes trough a transparent medium and appointed the length and the medium property as the main parameter to explain the light extinction. The correlation of absorbance and light path was proposed by Lambert. Finally, Beer concluded that absorbance is also proportional to the…

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    1.2. The ideal vapor- compression Refrigeration cycle Many of the impracticalities related with the reversed Carnot cycle can be removed by vaporizing the refrigerant completely before it is compressed and by replacing the turbine with a throttling devices, such as an expansion valve or capillary tube, The cycle that results is called the ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle, and is shown schematically and on T-s diagram in Fig 1.2. The vapor-compression refrigeration cycle is the most…

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    Results and Discussion Synthesis of Tin(IV) Porphyrin-Viologen Dyad: Tin(IV)porphyrin-viologen dyads 1 & 2 (scheme 1) used in this study was synthesized by a series of reactions. 1-(4-Carboxybenzyl)-1'-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium hexaflurophosphate was prepared from the reaction between 1-Methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium iodide with 4-(bromomethyl)benzoic acid followed by ion exchange with NH4PF6. Reaction of 1-(4-Carboxybenzyl)-1'-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium hexaflurophosphate with [Sn(OH)2TPP] (TPP =…

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    Introduction: Chemical reactions are a process that involves, rearranging the molecular structure of substances to create new ones. There are 3 types of chemical reactions, firstly there's synthesis, (e.g. 2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl); then, the other type of reaction is decomposition (CaCO3 → CaO + CO2); and finally there is combustion. Combustion is a rapid chemical combination of a substance (fuel) with oxygen, including the production of heat and light (e.g. CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O). In these types…

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    A reaction mixture containing 0.5172g of boric oxide and 1.0167g of acetylacetone was prepared and mixed in a 10 mL beaker. The reaction mixture was heated with occasional stirring for 10 minutes. Next, another mixture containing 1.3321g tributyl borate, 3.0005g of vanillin and 15ml of ethyl acetate was prepared in a 50 mL conical flask. The mixture was mixed and a magnetic stirrer was added to the mixture. The mixture was then stirred on a hot plate for 5 minutes at room temperature. After…

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    Esters have a very sweet fruity smell. Esters are commonly used in the preparation of artificial flavors or fragrances. Flavors and fragrances may utilize a single ester or a mixture of esters and other substances to duplicate the odor and flavor of a particular fruit. Naturally occurring esters are found in fruits. An ester is a product of the reaction of an acid (carboxylic acid) and an alcohol (the hydrogen of the acid R-COOH is replaced by an alkyl group R'). Esters mainly result…

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    The steps of synthesis process can be explained in Fig. 1. The Zn (NO3)2.4H2O (zinc nitrate tetrahydrate) and Al (NO3)2.9H2O (aluminum nitrate nonahydrate) (Merck) are used as a precursor. ZnO precursor solution with the concentration of 0.15 M was made by dissolving 0.89 grams of powder precursor Zn(NO3)3.4H2O in 40 ml of solvent. Solvent comprises a mixture of 30 ml deionized water and 10 ml of ethanol. To speed up the process of dissolution, the mixture was stirred using a magnetic stirrer…

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    Examining Substitution Reactions of Several Alcohol-Containing Compounds Several Experiments were performed using substitutions reactions with hydrogen halides. These results and favor methods or pathways for the several alcohols were observed and will be discussed. Introduction for all the material Scheme 1. Substitution of 3-(m-tolyl)propan-1-ol to form 1-(3-bromopropyl )-3-methylbenzene. Aromatic materials used in this reaction has high boiling point thus the reaction was heated…

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    To begin the first part of the experiment, zeolite and magnetized zeolite had to be synthesized. First, it was necessary to set up a contraption to hold a thermometer in place. This was done using a split cork and a 3 prong clam on a ring stand. 50 mL of 3.0 M NaOH was then added to a 250 mL beaker with a magnetic stir bar placed inside. After placing the solution on the stir bar, 3.7560 g of (sodium aluminate) was added to the solution. The thermometer was also added to the solution, but it…

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    Thermoller Research Paper

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    Who will use the Thermoller? People that loves playing sports in hot weathers. People from places that is hot. This device is mainly foe emergency use and can cool water in a situation where there is no ice. This can also be used to carry food around, keeping them hot or cold the way a thermos does. How does the Thermoller work? The Thermoller is activated by water. The packaging will include a funnel for using purposes (it will also include a bag that you can carry the Thermoller in). When you…

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