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    X-Ray Diffraction Lab

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    Lab 4: Crystal Structure and X-Ray Diffraction of Materials Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to study the relationship between the geometry of a sample and its diffraction patterns through an exploration of reciprocal space. In this experiment, both a single crystal piece of Si with a (004) reflection plane and a Si powder sample are scanned, as well as the peaks the locations of the diffraction peaks on the single crystal. The collected data is then analyzed to determine the criteria for planes to produce a spike in energy by plotting in reciprocal space. This experiment serves to illustrate the importance of reciprocal space. It also introduces the ideas of glancing incidence and exit. Theory The basis of x-ray diffraction is rooted in understanding the relationship between the geometry of diffraction and the geometry of crystal planes. One of the easiest ways to visualize this is the use of reciprocal space.…

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    mechanical, chemical or electrical properties of the chosen materials. In this work, the prepared samples are studied using various techniques given below. • Powder X-ray diffraction(PXRD) • Ultraviolet –Visible spectrometry(UV) • Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) • Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS) 1.8.1 Powder XRD analysis (PXRD) The structural information of the prepared samples is examined through powder X-ray diffraction. X-ray crystallography is a tool, which is used to identify…

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    into screw-capped glass scintillation vials and stored in a desiccator containing silica gel at 20 ± 2 ºC and 36 ± 2% relative humidity until used. The process yield of the produced powders was calculated using the following formula. Process yield (%)=(Mass of the powder obtained (mg) )/(Total solid content of each formulation (mg))×100 (1) Estimation of drug content by HPLC analysis Approximately 5 mg of spray-dried powder sample was dissolved in 100 mL of suitable solvent (kanamycin in…

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    The diffraction pattern was scanned over 2 range of 3 to 50o at a scanning rate of 1o/min. The relative degree of crystallinity (RDC) was calculated to determine the degree of drug crystallinity in formulation compared to pure drug, by using the following equation18. (Maulvi et al., 2011) EXM…

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    Atomic Spectra Lab Report

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    This was when there were a series of different light bulbs that had to be observed on, off, and though a diffraction grating. (Sanders, 2). The other part of this section that was not described in Table 5 was the part with the array of LED lights. The observations were made through a diffraction grating as well and the light that was visible was in a continuous fashion. Let’s start with discussing the difference between experimental and calculated values of the wavelengths. In just about every…

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    Joseph von Fraunhofer was a German optician and physicist who discovered and influenced how astronomers view the dark line spectrum, the spectrum of the sun and the diffraction of light. His discoveries turned him as a glassmaker with humble beginnings into a scientists whose discoveries would allow scientists after him to calculate the distances of stars and lead them to recognize that the universe is expanding. On March 6, 1787 in Straubing, Bavaria, Joseph Ritter von Fraunhofer was born into…

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    Structure Of Isotinamide

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    that the hydrogen bonding behaviour of Isonicotinamide is of interest since different polymorphs exhibited different hydrogen bonding and molecular orientation. This present work however focuses on the qualitative phase identification and crystal structure analysis of Isonicotinamide nucleated from solvent ethanol. Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD) technique has been employed in this identification and analysis. The Cambridge Structure database (CSD) software has been used extensively in this…

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    Willow Tree Lab Report

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    potassium hydrogen bis(acetylsalicylate). The authors of the paper performed a neutron diffraction study of potassium hydrogen bis(acetylsalicylate). The goal of this study was to compare the results of X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction on potassium hydrogen bis(acetylsalicylate). It was found that neutron diffraction experiments give a more precise outcome overall for the bond distances, bond angles, atom positioning and thermal parameters of molecules compared to X-ray diffraction…

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    argued that light was in fact a wave. Unfortunately, as Newton was the president of the Royal Society at the time and many other scientists would simply take what he said to be the truth, this meant that few scientists of the era actually considered his proposal. Newton’s theory was based off of Pierre Gassendi and Thomas Hobbes corpuscular theory of light. Newton stated that the concept of diffraction was simply a new kind of refraction and that the wave theory of light…

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    Who Is Rosalind Franklin?

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    for the role she played in the the discovery of the structure of DNA, also her pioneering the use of X-ray diffraction. Franklin enrolled at Newnham College, Cambridge, in 1938 and she studied chemistry. In 1941 she was awarded Second Class Honors on her finals, which was like a bachelor's degree qualifications for employment. She worked as an assistant research officer at the British Coal Utilisation Research Association. And during that time she studied the porosity of coal. The information…

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