Importance Of Crystal Structure Of Materials

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The crystal structure of a material provides variety of important concepts on various scales. A proper understanding of the internal structure of the material through the characterization methods has become essential to identify the novel materials for a specific device application. Currently wide range of experimental methods is available to know the mechanical, chemical or electrical properties of the chosen materials. In this work, the prepared samples are studied using various techniques given below.
• Powder X-ray diffraction(PXRD)
• Ultraviolet –Visible spectrometry(UV)
• Scanning electron microscopy(SEM)
• Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS)
1.8.1 Powder XRD analysis (PXRD) The structural information of the prepared samples is examined through powder X-ray diffraction. X-ray crystallography is a tool, which is used to identify the crystal structure of a system. By measuring the angles and intensities of the diffraction pattern, we
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X-ray diffractometer consists of three basic components (i) X-ray tube (ii) sample holder and (ii) detector. In the X-ray tube highly accelerated electrons are directed towards the target material. Copper is the most common target material used. When these electrons are interacted with the target and characteristic X-rays are produced. This X-ray spectrum consists of several components. These X-rays are then collimated to get Kα1 and Kα2 radiations then directed towards the sample. When Bragg’s law is satisfied, the constructive interference occurs and its corresponding intensity peak is observed. In the θ-2θ mode spectrometer, X-ray source remains in fixed position and the detector fixed in the arm moves to collect the diffraction intensities. The intensity of the X-rays is recorded with the help of the detector and process the signal to a count rate. Finally the output is retrieved from the computer monitor (or) printer [Skoog et al.,

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