Bondi Junction

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  • HCSMA Case Studies

    Case Study: Hereditary Canine Spinal Muscular Atrophy Genetic Background Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is proven to be an autosomal-dominate disease that affects most noticeably the Brittany spaniel (Pinter MJ, Waldeck RF, Wallace N, & Cork LC, Motor Unit Behavior in Canine Motor Neuron Disease, 1995). HCSMA originated as a spontaneous mutation in the Survivor Motor Neutron gene found in the purebred Brittany spaniel population (Ericsson. A & Rubin. C, 2012). Due to the co-dominate nature of the disease there are slight variation in the phenotype expressed in the diseased population, the homozygous individuals will be affected by the disease much earlier than the heterozygous individuals (Pinter MJ, Waldeck RF, Wallace N, & Cork LC, 1995). The co-dominate nature of the genes affects the severity of the disease, homozygous HCSMA affects the individual much earlier and disease is accelerated, whereas heterozygous HCSMA causes intermediate traits or chronic disease in the individual (Sack GH Jr, Cork LC, Morris JM, Griffin JW, & Price DL, 1984). Dogs that are homozygous for HCSMS will start to develop muscle weakness by 1.5 months and quadriparetic by 3 months of age. Through experimental breeding, the experimenters discovered that the HCSMA affects both sexes equally, thus proving the disease to have no linkage to the sex chromosomes (Sack GH Jr, Cork LC, Morris JM, Griffin JW, & Price DL, 1984). Physiological Processes Hereditary canine spinal muscular…

    Words: 1889 - Pages: 8
  • Biceps Muscles Lab Report

    Figure 1. An EMG Tracing of Triceps and Biceps Muscles Co-activation. EMG signal produces an electrical activity of the muscle fibers active at a moment time. The electrical activity is measured in millivolts per milliseconds. The top channel shows the bicep EMG, while the bottom EMG correlates to the triceps contraction traces. Shown on the top graph, there are two periods of bicep activation, each last approximately 1.5ms. When the biceps are activated, it produces increasing amplitude peaks,…

    Words: 811 - Pages: 4
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    A nerve cell is also called a motor neuron, which is made from a cell body, an axon and axon terminals. The cell body contains a nucleus and dendrites that receive the signals and send it down the axon that is covered in myelin sheath. The axon terminals are connected to the muscles creating a neuromuscular junction. This is where the signal is relayed to the muscle. There are two groups of motor neurons: upper and lower. Upper motor neurons are those found in the brain and lower motor neurons…

    Words: 1129 - Pages: 5
  • Maximum Contraction Lab Report

    Introduction: Temperature can affect the rate at which an action potential is generated to excite an action potential within a given skeletal muscle. Maximum contraction is the ability of the muscle to recruit and produce its greatest force during a contraction, and we can observe these effects by using a grip force transducer, which records the functional grip force of the hand. Therefore, the purpose of this lab was to discern how varying temperatures affect maximum contraction. I…

    Words: 732 - Pages: 3
  • Essay On Spatial Inequality

    It has played a central role in the development of Australia's beach culture and in developing our sense of national identity. The prime location of Hall Street near the beach has helped it develop to be food hub and a growing hub for many industries. The geographical location of Bondi has helped the development of nearby areas in many categories. Hall street’s location near Bondi Beach has advantaged it to develop better with more facilities. The Waverley council has allocated $3 million…

    Words: 1185 - Pages: 5
  • Jack Goodall's Role In The Great Depression

    in the Prince Alfred Park ice rink opening in Chalmers Street, Surrey Hills on June 2nd, 1959. The new open-air rink was managed by John Caruana, who had run the Glaciarium since 1948, and Sports Stadium Brighton in England, home ice to the ENLs Brighton Tigers IHC for 30 years, over which time it gained a reputation as one of the biggest sporting and entertainment venues in England. He was also associated with Earl’s Court, aka the Empress Hall, a major ice rink and entertainment arena in…

    Words: 1436 - Pages: 6
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