Aldehyde

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    inorganic ions (such as Ce4+). The Chromic Acid test results positive for primary or secondary alcohols or aldehydes. Primary alcohols will be oxidized to aldehydes and aldehydes are oxidized to carboxylic acids. Secondary alcohols will be oxidized to ketones. However, tertiary alcohols will not be oxidized. The oxidization is done through the addition of the alcohol oxygen to chromium, and the removal of a proton from the carbon by a base (in this case water), which will break the O-Cr bond and form a new π bond. The DNPH test confirms the presence or absence of an aldehyde or ketone. It is a condensation reaction, where two molecules are joined together and water is removed. It reacts with the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones. The Ion Chloride test results positive in the presence of phenols. In this reaction, the phenols complexes with the iron ion, Fe3+, as demonstrated below: The Iodoform test identifies if the compound is an acetaldehyde or a methyl ketone. A visible precipitate of this compound will form only when either an acetaldehyde or a methyl ketone is present. The methyl group of the ketone or aldehyde is removed from the molecule and iodoform (CHI3) which is insoluble in water, is produced. The Potassium Permanganate test identifies the presence or absence of an aldehyde, alkene, or phenol. Dihydroxyl phenols are oxidized to quinones. Aldehydes will be oxidized to carboxylic acids, and alkenes are glycols, with the addition of oxygen. As…

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    The purpose of this lab was to prepare tetraphenylcyclopentadienone most commonly known as tetracyclone. This involved a 3-step synthesis over the course of 3 weeks. The first step was the preparation of benzoin, which was completed through self-condensation of benzaldehyde with thiamine used as the base catalyst of the reaction. The next step was the preparation of benzil from the oxidation reaction of benzoin with nitric acid. In the oxidation reaction, the alcohol functional group of benzoin…

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    REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES ABSTRACT The difference between aldehydes and ketones is by having a hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl group. This makes the aldehydes very easy to oxidize. Ketones do not have that hydrogen atom and are resistant to oxidation. They are only oxidized by powerful oxidizing agents which have the ability to break the carbon-carbon bonds. This report is about the reactions of aldehydes and ketones. This was done to determine how they react when different…

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    Iodoform Test

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    Carbonyl compounds are the compounds the contain C=O group which is called carbonyl group (double bond oxygen to a carbon). There are many types of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amides etc. Aldehydes and ketones are the oxidation products of alcohols. Depending on the alcohol’s structure, the product obtained will be different. Primary alcohols have one carbon and two hydrogen atoms attached will produce aldehyde and then to carboxylic acid in two…

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    Acetone Synthesis Essay

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    The purpose of this experiment was to ascertain an unidentified substance. The substance in question was a colorless liquid with an odor resembling acetone. To start with the Tollens’ test was conducted on the unidentified substance to differentiate between an aldehyde and a ketone. The results of the test were negative. This indicated that the substance under consideration was a ketone The next step consisted of determining the melting point of the substance, which was in the range…

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    Unknown 105 A

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    that fit, and segregate the ones that don’t; which in return help remove any impurities that were present in the solid. Functional group testing is done to confirm there is a functional group and to rule out other functional group. Ketone and aldehyde are going to react with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) because the structure has a carbonyl group that is presented. Chromic acid functional group testing indicates weather the unknown is a ketone or aldehyde. The structure of ketone…

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    Carbonyl compounds undergo various types of reaction. In these reaction the carbonyl carbon or carbonyl oxygen is prone to attack generally by a nucleophile. Different types of carbonyl compounds undergo different types of reactions and the mechanisms of them are also different. The products or by-products or intermediate products of these reactions are very much useful in laboratory synthesis, industry etc. here we will discuss some very much important reactions which are very important for…

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    ABSTRACT Alcoholism is a significant health problem in the world. The liver is the first and primary target organ for alcohol metabolism. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase play important roles in the metabolism of alcohol and aldehyde. In this study, I aimed to investigate the eliminatory effects of a Phellinus spp on alcohol metabolism in drunken Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Male SD rats were given Phellinus spp extract at 30 min after 40% (5 g/kg) alcohol ingestion. To assay the…

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    2-Styrylquinolines

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    Synthesis and antibacterial activities of some Substituted 2-styrylquinolines Quinoline nucleus is present in many biologically active classes of compounds. Some of them are used as antiprotozoic, antibacterial and antifungal drugs [1]. Among the various classes of quinolines, 2-styryl quinolines form an important group having a wide spectrum of biological activities [2 – 8] including HIV integrase inhibition activity [9 - 15]. The general method for the synthesis of these derivatives is via…

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    There are several different reactions that can be utilized in order to end with a product that includes the synthesis of carbon-carbon bonds, however for this experiment the reaction that was utilized is aldol condensation. An aldol condensation is when an enolizable aldehyde or ketone undergoes a reaction, in the presence of a base or acid, and gives a beta unsaturated ketone or aldehyde (Utah Valley University, 2009). This type of reaction can also add carbonyls to a compound, using similar…

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