Reflection Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Improved Essays
REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
ABSTRACT
The difference between aldehydes and ketones is by having a hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl group. This makes the aldehydes very easy to oxidize. Ketones do not have that hydrogen atom and are resistant to oxidation. They are only oxidized by powerful oxidizing agents which have the ability to break the carbon-carbon bonds. This report is about the reactions of aldehydes and ketones. This was done to determine how they react when different reagents are used. Different carbonyl compounds were used with two unknowns. These compounds were then tested as to how they react using Tollen’s reagent, Iodoform test and Jones reagent test. Tollen’s reagent test is known for forming silver mirror precipitate
…show more content…
They were mixed together and the one drop of Chromic anhydride reagent was added. Changes were then observed. The same steps were followed using butanol, secondary butanol and tertiary butanol.
TOLLEN’S REAGANT
All samples of carbonyl compounds were used together with the unknowns. One drop of carbonyl compound was added each to a 1ml of Tollen’s reagent, which was already made, in a test tube. The tubes were shaken to mix the solution and timed for 10 minutes while being observed for any changes. If the test was negative, solutions were then heated in a boiling water bath for 5 minutes in order to see how they will change after
…show more content…
However, unknown B had a milky white precipitate before heating and acetaldehyde just had little white things moving around the solution and then after heating, acetaldehyde and unknown B then produced a silver mirror with black precipitate. Other carbonyl compounds did not show any change even after heating. This would mean that they are not aldehydes or there was an error when mixing the compounds.
IODOFORM REACTION
RCOCH3 + 3I2 + 4NaOH ͢ RCOOˉNa⁺ + 3NaI + 3H20 + CHI3(s)
This test is positive only if a yellow precipitate appears. Pale yellow precipitate indicates the presence of methyl ketone but the other ketone will discharge colour. Unknown B, methanol, cyclohexane and acetaldehyde are not ketones since they did not produce a yellow precipitate. They are aldehydes and alcohol.
The unknowns were expected to have parallel similarities to the other carbonyl compounds. These compounds were helping in comparing the changes in order to classify unknown A and Unknown B in respect to their functional groups. From the results obtained and shown in table 1, we can conclude that unknown A is a ketone and unknown B is an

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    While NH4Cl (Nh4 is known ammonium) is a white powder that looked like salt and also looked glittery. The test tube was cooled down. (4a) CuSO4 is an acura blur color solution that seemed to have stuff at the bottom of the bottle that it was in. the zinc granules have a silver color to them. At first there it was little to no changes.…

    • 867 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Dehydration Lab Report

    • 1082 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Experimental: Fractional distillation is setup by adding 25.0 ml of 2-methylcyclohexanol in a 100-ml round bottom flask and to this 10 ml of 9 M sulfuric acid is added which acts a catalyst to this reaction. The content is swirled is completely for about 2 minutes periodically. Then 3 boiling chips is added to the mixture, now starts the fraction distillation. The mixture is heated with a heating mantle for distillation to occur. It is heated until 10-ml of the mixture remains in the reaction flask or less than 100°C.…

    • 1082 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The brown precipitate formed after the reaction was manganese(IV) oxide. While for unknown B, it was possible to be an alcohol. Alcohol released a lot of the soot during combustion. It does not react with bromine due to absent of carbon-carbon double bond. Primary and secondary alcohol can react with potassium permanganate to form aldehyde or ketone but not tertiary as it does not have hydrogen that attached to carbon.…

    • 742 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Camphene Synthesis

    • 1013 Words
    • 5 Pages

    A stir bar was added into the flask containing isoborneol, and the flask was attached to a ring stand to rest on top of a magnetic stirrer device. In consistent drops, 0.63 mL of glacial acetic was added and the reaction had a pH of 2, which was measured with pH indicator paper. Then, 0.50 mL of 10% w/v sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution was added, and the reagents were reacted for three minutes. Shortly after, 5.13 mL of 10% w/v NaOCl was added incrementally with a Pasteur pipet for about ten minutes. A thermocouple was periodically placed on the outside of the flask to make sure that the mixture did not reach past 50 °C.…

    • 1013 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Grignard Reaction Lab

    • 928 Words
    • 4 Pages

    This experiment was performed in order to prepare the Grignard reagent from aryl or alkyl halides and demonstrate the principles of organometallic chemistry. The Grignard reagent was prepared via a radical mechanism. The Grignard reagent was then used to prepare a carboxylic acid from carbon dioxide, demonstrating its ability to create carbon-carbon bonds by acting as a strong nucleophile. As the R group of the Grignard reagent was unknown, molecular weight and melting point were then used to identify the resulting carboxylic acid. The molecular weight was determined using titration techniques and the melting point was measured using a Mel-Temp Apparatus.…

    • 928 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Next, compound X is heated in a beaker with the burner. Then C20H14O4 is added with a dropper pipet. Observations are made. (1) Second of all, using a lab scoop, 0.4 g from compound X is put into a 50 ml beaker. It is weighted out with a digital balance.…

    • 1145 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Sn2 Reaction Essay

    • 1119 Words
    • 5 Pages

    A tertiary halogenoalkane will undergo SN1 and not SN2 reaction. In an SN1 reaction, the tertiary carbocation intermediate is trigonal planar and the incoming nucleophile can attack the positively charged carbon centre from either side of the plane with equal probability. The end result is a 50:50 racemic mixture which is optically inactive. Reactivity of Halogenoarenes Halogenoarenes are generally less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution because of two reasons.  The C-X bond has a partial double bond character.…

    • 1119 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    After that we pipetted 0.75 ml of buffer PE to the samples and spun it for another minute then disposed of the waste. The columns were added to the tubes and spun for a minute in the centrifuge to dry then planed in new clean tubes. Without touching the wafers with the pipet tip, 50µl of elution buffer EB was added to the columns then left for a minute and centrifuged for a minute. The liquid collected at the…

    • 709 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Carbohydrates Lab Report

    • 2213 Words
    • 9 Pages

    This was as well expected since sucrose does not have a free carbonyl group and cannot convert to the open-chain form (Rizzo, 2015). Lactose is also another disaccharide, but one that should be a reducing sugar, as lactose is able to undergo oxidation. The results of the lab specified as such when the lactose sample changed to a red color. Starch is a polysaccharide and the DNSA result indicated it was not a reducing sugar. This was expected because the starch compound should not have had a free carbonyl group.…

    • 2213 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Gel Solution Lab Report

    • 844 Words
    • 4 Pages

    A wash bottle was used to pour water to the edges and wait for about 5 minutes to verify there was no leakage. The TA came to the group in order to verify the correct assembly. Then, the water was through on the sink. 40 ml of 15% resolving gel solution was prepared. A 100 ml beaker was selected and labeled as resolving gel solution.…

    • 844 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays