Reflection Of Aldehydes And Ketones

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REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
ABSTRACT
The difference between aldehydes and ketones is by having a hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl group. This makes the aldehydes very easy to oxidize. Ketones do not have that hydrogen atom and are resistant to oxidation. They are only oxidized by powerful oxidizing agents which have the ability to break the carbon-carbon bonds. This report is about the reactions of aldehydes and ketones. This was done to determine how they react when different reagents are used. Different carbonyl compounds were used with two unknowns. These compounds were then tested as to how they react using Tollen’s reagent, Iodoform test and Jones reagent test. Tollen’s reagent test is known for forming silver mirror precipitate
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They were mixed together and the one drop of Chromic anhydride reagent was added. Changes were then observed. The same steps were followed using butanol, secondary butanol and tertiary butanol.
TOLLEN’S REAGANT
All samples of carbonyl compounds were used together with the unknowns. One drop of carbonyl compound was added each to a 1ml of Tollen’s reagent, which was already made, in a test tube. The tubes were shaken to mix the solution and timed for 10 minutes while being observed for any changes. If the test was negative, solutions were then heated in a boiling water bath for 5 minutes in order to see how they will change after
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However, unknown B had a milky white precipitate before heating and acetaldehyde just had little white things moving around the solution and then after heating, acetaldehyde and unknown B then produced a silver mirror with black precipitate. Other carbonyl compounds did not show any change even after heating. This would mean that they are not aldehydes or there was an error when mixing the compounds.
IODOFORM REACTION
RCOCH3 + 3I2 + 4NaOH ͢ RCOOˉNa⁺ + 3NaI + 3H20 + CHI3(s)
This test is positive only if a yellow precipitate appears. Pale yellow precipitate indicates the presence of methyl ketone but the other ketone will discharge colour. Unknown B, methanol, cyclohexane and acetaldehyde are not ketones since they did not produce a yellow precipitate. They are aldehydes and alcohol.
The unknowns were expected to have parallel similarities to the other carbonyl compounds. These compounds were helping in comparing the changes in order to classify unknown A and Unknown B in respect to their functional groups. From the results obtained and shown in table 1, we can conclude that unknown A is a ketone and unknown B is an

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