useful in finding small resistances and is used in various applications such as strain gages. The following figure shows the arrangement of a Wheatstone bridge.
Figure 1: Arrangement of a Wheatstone Bridge 
Importance of Wheatstone bridge when measuring strain:
Wheatstone bridge is useful in measuring strain because it is useful in finding small resistances or small variations in resistance . Whenever, a strain is applied to a particular material it changes the resistance of elements…
cyclic stress-strain responses of selected specimens having all influential parameters considered in this study, such as the volumetric ratio of transverse steel reinforcement, number of CFRP layers, and aspect ratio. In this figure, the axial stress was calculated by dividing the axial load to the column cross-sectional area, and the corresponding axial strain was derived from the average readings of the four LVDTs divided by the central gauge length of each column. The hoop rupture strain was…
Figure (4.3): Failure pattern of cubes specimens (C1).
4.2.3. Static Modulus of Elasticity:
Modulus of elasticity is a necessary parameter to determine the stresses in materials and structures. Even though concrete has nonlinear stress-strain behavior,…
Awareness of creep as a design consideration.
Structural materials are often placed in service under a certain applied load at elevated temperatures (eg. wind turbines). Over time, the material elongates as a result of the strain accumulated and deforms. Such time-dependent deformation is dubbed as creep. Creep deformation can happen due to long-term exposure to high levels of stress, albeit still below the yield strength of the material. It usually happens at high…
An article analyses of Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal? Adams, Henry E.; Wright, Lester W.; Lohr, Bethany A. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3), Aug 1996, 440-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.105.3.440
The main issue that was investigated by Henry E. Adams, Lester W. Wright, Jr., and Bethany A. Lohr was to examine how heterosexual men who self -disclosed as objectors to homosexual individuals physically responded to same-sex arousal; there was also…
Non-destructive testing is an analysis technique used to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.
Non-destructive tests are designed to maximize both tester and tested product safety. Most of the test are conducted under strict settings to ensure the safety of the testers, and all tested products remain completely undamaged.
Non-destructive testing comes out with accurate results because of the variety of available…
Determine extent of plasmids’ effects on RsmAYZ system. I will examine how various plasmids affect the activity of several transcriptional reporters in P. aeruginosa as measured by a Miller (beta-galactosidase) assay. I will test the reporter strains PlacP1-lacZ to confirm that pJN105 does not affect transcription of Vfr, another gene involved in T3SS regulation. I will also examine the activity of transcriptional reporters for the exsD, rsmY, and rsmZ genes to confirm that these genes are…
Biaxial Tensile Tests
Different stress and strain definitions have been used to study the biomechanics of soft tissue . The 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green strain definitions have been employed in this study, which are described briefly in the following.
The Green strain tensor is defined as E=1/2(F^T F-1), where F is the gradient deformation tensor. For the case of in-plane biaxial stretching in directions 1 and 2, the Green strain in these directions can be written as…
dynamic motion stations, traffic cameras and dynamic strain gauges.
3. bridge monitoring sensors, this group consists of sensory devices for assessment of the bridges characteristics using various types of accelerometers, GPS, level sensors and strain gauges.
4. bridge response sensors, this group consists of sensory devices for assessment of the bridges responses to different transient loadings and other conditions such as dynamic and static strains, displacement, vibrations, and tilting…