Bilirubin

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    multiple processes including an increase in production of bilirubin, decreased hepatic uptake, decreased conjugation, impaired excretion, impaired bile flow, or an in increase in enterohepatic circulation. The bulk of bilirubin comes from the breakdown of hemoglobin into unconjugated bilirubin. Unconjugated bilirubin binds to albumin in the blood so it can be transported to the liver where it is then taken by the hepatocytes and then conjugated with glucuronic acid by an enzyme so it can become water soluble. The conjugate bilirubin is then excreted in bile and then on into the duodenum. Adults conjugated bilirubin can be reduced by bacteria in the gut to urobilin and then excreted, but infants have less bacteria in their digestive-tracts and in turn, less bilirubin is condensed to urobilin and excreted. Infants also have the enzyme beta-glucuronidase which deconjugates the bilirubin and can then be reabsorbed and recycled into their circulation which is known as enterohepatic circulation of…

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    Also, the system of unit (SI) was multiplied by the above value of 0.357 for blood urea nitrogen, 0.02586 of both high/ low density lipoprotein, and 0.01129 for triglycerides. The researchers added 1/5 and 1/10 dilution of the specimen and showed no changes in the TC value. They also used the icteric index to identify the patient’s total amount of bilirubin. Also, lipemic index and the hemolysis index were used during the procedure and showed no interference. The method that they used for…

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    Bilirubin Synthesis

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    The CMP results show that his blood glucose levels are very high and that is because he is a type two diabetic. The bilirubin levels are really high and this can indicate cancer of the pancreas due to the blockage from cancerous cells in the bile ducts . Bilirubin is a waste product produced by the normal breakdown of heme, which is a component of hemoglobin that is found in red blood cells. Bilirubin is ultimately processed by the liver to allow its elimination from the body. Any condition that…

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    abnormal amounts of lipids in the blood, which causes cholesterol levels to increase. Studies have found that some patients present with off the charts cholesterol levels prior to being diagnosed. Medical professionals use the liver blood test to determine the levels of enzymes that signal liver disease or bile duct issues. Sometimes testing needs to go a step further and a biopsy of the liver could be performed. The last test that could be ran is an antibody test to check for…

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    SETTING THE SCENE: Late at night a middle age man (pt) walks into a bar and orders drink after drink until the bartender cuts the man off. He gets angry and stumbles out of the bar. On his way out he his grasping his abdomen and suddenly fall to the ground (in the middle of the bar) unconscious. An emergency medical responder happens to be in the bar and starts to assess the man but also called for help. EMS is activated. Scene: It’s a Friday 11:10pm. A crowded Irish pub with drinks all over the…

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    Case #1 Female 25 years old Kasey presented to lab test after a referral from her midwife on the 30th of March 2015 to confirm pregnancy. A CBC and HCG Quantification were ordered. On the 13th of August 2015, a new blood test CBC was taken as a procedure screening, which showed a decrease of hemoglobin, compared to in March. The patient showed no history of any complications or signs of fatigue. A screen for gestational diabetes mellitus was ordered to determine if the patient had diabetes. An…

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    Bilirubin Research Paper

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    BILIRUBIN Bilirubin is an orange -yellow substance which is made during the breaking down of RBC’s. It is excreted out of the body through liver. The test results for Bilirubin are stated as conjugated (direct), unconjugated (indirect) . Higher level of bilirubin indicates different types of liver problems. Normal level of total bilirubin is 1.2 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) for adults, and usually 1 mg/dL for those under 18 and for direct bilirubin are generally 0.3 mg/dL. A bilirubin test…

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    Bilirubin Test Lab Report

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    There are quite a few special circumstances that phlebotomists need to take into consideration when collecting a specimen because not every specimen is treated the same. Such as the bilirubin test for example; “When obtaining the specimen for this testing, it is important for the phlebotomist to recognize the effect of light on the specimen” (LabCE, 2017, para 1). Light can greatly impact the results of the test and could cause a lower bilirubin level than what is actually present in the…

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    Introduction Jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucous membranes. It is caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is produced by the normal breakdown of red blood cells. In the newborn period, red blood cells break down rapidly, but the liver is not ready to process the extra bilirubin efficiently. The liver may take 1–2 weeks to develop completely. Jaundice usually lasts for about 2–3 weeks in babies who are breastfed. Jaundice…

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    Heart Failure (HF)

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    liver function abnormalities tend to have poorer prognosis.3 When assessing liver function, high values in liver function testing indicate liver abnormalities. Two commonly elevated markers found in HF are bilirubin and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). 3,5,7 Bilirubin is a yellow-hued marker present in bile; it is important to monitor because elevated levels are prevalent in HF patients and associated with higher mortality8 and poor prognosis.6 A bilirubin study found 70% of HF patients had elevated…

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