Alkaloid

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    Alkaloids Research Paper

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    Intro: A. Alkaloids are the most diverse group of natural products that exist within living organisms (Hartmann, 1998). Alkaloids are a diverse group of low molecular weight; nitrogen-containing compounds mainly derived from amino acids, and are found in about 20% of plant species. Alkaloids play a very important role in organism metabolism and functional activity. They are metabolic products in plants, animals and microorganisms (Aniszewski, 2007). Due to their potent biological activity, many of the approximately 12,000 known alkaloids are used for certain physiological roles that can be both beneficial and detrimental to living organisms every day. History of Alkaloids: When, How, and by Who? : Alkaloids are noted to been used by humans since ancient times for medical and recreational use. During these ancient times alkaloid use was typically limited to priests, medicine men, shamans, magicians and witches due to the expertise needed in prescribing a non-lethal dose. The earliest evidence that humans used alkaloid-producing plants was over 4,000 years ago through the discovery of Assyrian clay tablets. On these plates many…

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    to the frightening disease ergot of rye , back then nicknamed “holy fire” or “St. Anthony’s Fire”;nowadays, the only victims of this disease is seen among animals that consume plants holding the Ergot parasite (Schumann 2005). Although the genus Claviceps has only 50 species under its name, Claviceps purpurea (purple ergot) is the only one presently found on over 200 grass species that are commonly found in temperate regions located among Africa, Asia, Australasia and Oceania, Europe, and the…

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    Alkaloids are a group of nitrogen-containing compounds found primarily in plants. In fact, they are one of the largest assortments of chemical weapons produced by plants. “According to R.F. Raffauf, more than 10,000 different alkaloids have been discovered in species from over 300 plant families” (Fester, 2010). Although these chemicals are thought to have been present in our world long before humanity came into being, the structure of some alkaloids such as dopamine and serotonin are…

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    Neurodegenerative Disease

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    The recent description of an immunomodulatory circuit for the neural inhibition of inflammation, called the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway," has aroused keen interest in the class of cholinergic agents. Thus, the natural products have been a constant source of new approaches for the treatment of AD, especially alkaloids. For example, galantamine (Galanthus woronowii), is a selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, allosteric modulator of the central nicotinic receptor, inhibits βA…

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    Morphine Research Paper

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    History Morphine was first isolated in its crystal form by pharmacist Friedrich Sertürner in 1817. Because of the pain relief effects of the opium poppy, many chemists were attempting in the decade beforehand to extract what was later to be called morphine. With the extraction of morphine also was a milestone as it was the first alkaloid to be isolated. Since its discovery its use has become widespread both as a painkiller, for its recreational effects, and was once thought to be a cure for…

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    Opioids Research Paper

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    Opioids Definition and Classification 1. Definition It is important to distinguish between opium, opiate and opioid. According to Vallejo et al. (2011, page E343), opium is a natural extract from the opium poppy, whereas opiates and opioids are its derivatives. Natural alkaloids derived of opium are generally called opiates, whereas opioids (opium-like) can be either natural or synthetic. The most common known opioids are morphine, codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, oxycodone, etc. (Vallejo et al.,…

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    class of alkaloid molecules known as methylxanthines. The purpose of this essay is demonstrating the chemistry of the theobromine as well as its effects and uses. This essay will include the overview of the structure and chemistry of theobromine. Secondly, the effects of theobromine in human and animal health will be discussed. Finally, this essay will examine the positive and negative implications in the different uses that theobromine could have. DISCUSSION Theobromine is the primary alkaloid…

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    Cocaine Lab Report

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    the cartel's power and the manufacturing process declined. The farmer's raw pasta of 30% to 80% cocaine undergoes the second stage in processing being refined in "base" labs run by thousands of clandestine mom and pop labs rather than Escobar's large centralized labs. These labs take the paste and turn it into cocaine base. The final and most important stage occurs in the larger "crystal" labs where the base undergoes crystallization into cocaine hydrochloride. These labs are more sophisticated…

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    Chemistry Of Opium

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    opium, substance derived by collecting and drying the milky juice in the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. Opium varies in color from yellow to dark brown and has a characteristic odor and a bitter taste. Its chief active principle is the alkaloid morphine, a narcotic. Other constituents are the alkaloids codeine, papaverine, and noscapine (narcotine); heroin is synthesized from morphine. Morphine, heroin, and codeine are addicting drugs; papaverine and noscapine are not.…

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    Phytic Acid In Yeast

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    Saponins were not found in all the testes samples of Gishta. ranging from 0.59 to 1.7mg/ml. Seeds contained the highest concentration (1.7mg/ml) which is very close to the saponin standard (2mg/ml). Whereas leaves and fruit pulp contained 0.59, 0.97mg/ml respectively. Figure 1. Haemolysis produced on blood agar plates by saponins from seeds of Gishta (Annona spp. of Ethiopia) Table. 2. Antinutrients profile in leaves, fruit pulp and seeds of Gishta (Annona spp. of Ethiopia) determined in…

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