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    Origin of LSD and Psilocybin: Home Sweet Home Both these psychological drugs do not come in handy packages, all gift-wrapped and perfectly ready for the user to high on. Whether it is psilocybin being nicknamed “magic mushroom” or LSD in its natural pure state, it is not the organism itself, but a component that is found inside it and constantly produced as a “weapon” to fend off any predators, mainly herbivores and omnivores (obviously), those that do try to eat it. For psilocybin, they can be found in the genus Agaricales which include numerous species, listed in following along with the number of organisms per species: genera Psilocybe (117 species), Gymnopilus (13 species), Panaeolus (7 species), Copelandia (12 species), Hypholoma (6 species), Pluteus (6 species), Inocybe (6 species), Conocybe (4 species), and Agrocybe, Galerina and Mycena (one each) (Azarius 2016). Out of the species earlier listed, the majority could be found in the subtropical humid forests of Mexico and New Guinea, especially Mexico having the highest number of neurotropic fungi (76 species), of which 44 belong to the Psilocybe species (39% of the world) (Azarius 2016). The most common form of psilocybin is the Psilocybe cubensis mushroom (also known as Stropharia cubensis, “Mexican Mushroom”) and due to it being easy to grow in large quantities, it makes it quite popular among the black market and is later nicknamed “magic mushroom”. Having the stereotypical mushroom shape and appearance,…

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    is still taking it though bupropion was discontinued. Ropinirole is a non-ergoline dopamine agonist that is a common antiparkinsonian drug that is also indicated for restless leg syndrome. It acts directly on the postsynaptic striatal receptors, allowing for more dopamine to be in the synaptic cleft by reducing turnover of the neurotransmitter (Murdoch, Cheer, & Wagstaff, 2004). Ropinirole focuses mostly on stimulating D2 and D3 receptors with little activity on other receptors, leading to fewer…

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    What Is Drug Abuse?

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    Specialists in addiction have argued that Acute effects of abuse of alcohol are distinguished the first occurs when blood alcohol level is 100ml. in this moment the individual loses inhibitions, and he has feeling of euphory. The second stage is when the blood alcohol level is 200ml, and person doesn 't have control of his actions. The third stage occurs when blood alcohol level is major of 300ml, and its effects are deep sleep, unconsciousness and coma. And the last stage is when blood alcohol…

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    society, culture, and its values the way these mushrooms did at that time (Tomov et al. 2008). Ending of its reign and popularity, the use of the psilocybin mushroom eventually leads to the discovery of LSD, a man made chemical hallucinogenic (Tomov et al. 2008), forever changing the way society, government, and overall human race now acts in present times. Discussion LSD and psilocybin, two out of the many serotonergic psychedelics with the ability to cause so much, but in such a…

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    and continuous tradition of religious use of Salvia divinorum, using it to facilitate visionary states of consciousness during spiritual healing sessions. Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug. DXM is also used recreationally. When exceeding label-specified maximum dosages, dextromethorphan acts as a dissociative hallucinogen. Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its…

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    Brown, 2009). In chapter seven Jeeves and Brown discuss the foundations of religious experience and morality. Hallucinogenic drugs have been used throughout history as a connection between the material world and the super natural. For example, the Aztecs used mushrooms, the Huicol used peyote, and many other tribes used forms of water lilies and opium poppies (Jeeves and Brown, 2009). Their methods were simple hallucinogenic drugs facilitated intense deliriums. Thus, neuroscientists have…

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    DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria

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    “substance use disorder” is a disease or a true mental illness, because it uses or abuse change the brain in structure and operation. It affects many circuits of the brain, including memory, motivation, learning, and emotion control, disrupting so many aspects of an individual 's life. Substance use disorder has different influences such as emotional, social, psychological, and physiological factors. Psychosocial theories suggest that family and environment play an important role in substance…

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    and pleasant psychedelic effects the drug had and researched the psychological effects of the drug years after. This quote is from Hoffman's journal and is his description of his first LSD trip “I suddenly became strangely inebriated. The external world became changed as in a dream. Objects appeared to gain inrelief; they assumed unusual dimensions; and colors became more glowing. Even self-perception and the sense of time were changed. When the eyes were closed, colored pictures flashed past in…

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    Clavicep Synthesis

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    society, culture, and its values the way these mushrooms did at that time (Tomov at el. 2008). Ending off its reign and popularity, the use of the psilocybin mushroom eventually lead to the discovery of LSD, a man made chemical hallucinogenic (Tomov at el. 2008), forever changing the way society, government, and overall human race now acts in present times. Discussion LSD and psilocybin, two out of the many serotonergic psychedelics with the ability to cause so much, but in such a…

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