Radionuclide

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    Essay On Nuclear Chemistry

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    inserted into the patient through injection. Before the uses of nuclear chemistry in medicine are discussed, it is vital to study the chemistry of nuclear and radioactivity. A nuclide consists of protons and neutrons in any configuration. Most nuclides are unstable and spontaneously release energy. Sometime subatomic particles are also released in order to reach the level of more stability. This process of attempt to go from unstable to stable state is the key for radioactive decay. We call the unstable nuclides radionuclides. In the mid- 20th century medical radionuclide production highly used reactors, accelerators and cyclotrons. Among the 1500 nuclides that are available, reactor-produced radionuclides are usually electron rich. This property result for the nuclides to decay by β negative emission that was used for cancer therapy. Some reactor-produced radionuclides were used for nuclear medicine imaging. The other aspect of medical radionuclide production was…

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    Nuclear Medicine History

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    using all the knowledge in molecular biology, and cancer biology combined with imaging, It will be images, combined with genes, tumor markers and patient data.” (Liselotte Hojgaard, MD, professor of medicine and technology at the University of Copenhagen) The science of radioactivity has existed for many decades since it’s discovery. While often perceived as a risky and dangerous practice, artificial radioactivity can not only be used for energy and weaponry, but also to diagnose diseases and…

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    Cobalt 60 Research Paper

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    are detected by a gamma camera which can see the organs from any point of view. The gamma camera creates an image from the points from when the radiation is emitted; the image is enhanced by a computer and viewed by a physician on a monitor for signs of abnormal conditions. Nuclear medicine is a department of medical imaging that uses radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the function and structure of organs and tissue function. A radiopharmaceutical is a radioactive drug that contains radioisotopes.…

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    The hydrosphere is the water found within the earth’s lithosphere and the major bodies of water Earth provides from the surface. The largest body of water effected by the Fukushima disaster was the Pacific Ocean. There was a large volume of radionuclides that were released into the environment as fallout from the initial explosion. The fallout contaminated both freshwater and marine systems. After the initial fallout the Pacific Ocean suffered the effects of contaminated waters used to cool the…

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    Gallium scans, Gastric Emptying, MUGA scans, and Spect Brain scans are just a few of the scans that were formed, thanks to the nuclear medicine of today. In 1896, a man by the name of Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium penetrating rays were similar to X-rays. This leads to other numerous discovers like the finding of elements polonium and radium, to the cyclotron invented by Ernest Lawrence that included the ability to produce radioisotopes of different elements. This leads to 1946, where…

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    created by bombarding Molybdenum-98 with a proton, which then decays to produce metastable Tc-99. Creating technetium this way is only allowed for medical purposes. Since all forms of technetium are radioactive, and radiation damages or kills living cells, it must be bonded to other chemical compounds to ensure that it does not cause harm to the body. Depending on what area of the body is to be targeted, different 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals are used. There are first and second generation…

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    Introduction Radiation protection policy is distributed among several governmental Agencies in the United States. Each agency is tasked with controlling exposure to radiation and the safe use of radioactive materials and radiation generating devices. These agencies inform their policy with reports and recommendations from a number of organizations, including the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). The NCRP is a longstanding organization that strives to provide…

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    Fluorine 18 Research Paper

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    Radio isotope name Fluorine-18 Name of application (the purpose to which it is applied) It is used in the radiopharmaceutical industry, positron emission tomography: metabolic abnormalities Diagram of atomic structure of this isotope Main uses of the radio isotope Fluorine-18 is the most frequently used radioisotope in Positron Emission Tomography and the radiopharmaceutical industry. “PET is imaging for cancer. Fluorine-18 is synthesised into fluorodeoxyglucose for PET.” (Wikipedia). …

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    Nuclear medicine is used by physicians all over the world, pre-dating Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Ultrasound technology. Tests are conducted using pharmaceuticals in conjunction with specific mechanical imaging, allowing optimal diagnosis for various conditions. Nuclear medicine allows doctors to see inside the body in ways that X-ray, CT, and MRI alone cannot, providing the most accurate way to study and diagnose specific abnormalities within the body’s…

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    Dangers of Radiation. Soldiers have been put in danger throughout recent history due to negligence with nuclear material and weapons testing. Either through having soldiers being at the actual test sites when the bombs were detonated or having them complete military exercises afterwards or getting the site ready for the next weapons test. Having soldiers move around radioactive material, living on bases nearby radioactive material, getting unknowingly bombarded by radiation to see its effects…

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