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  • Advantages And Disadvantages Of Tri-O-Acetyloride

    Under oxidative conditions, certain nucleobases (for example, adenine and cytosine) can form N-oxides. Also, the C8 position of guanosine is vulnerable to hydrolytic attack under either strongly acidic or strongly alkaline conditions. The 5,6 double bond of pyrimidine nucleosides also reacts with halogens and halohydrins to give the corresponding addition products (Shabarova and Bogdanov, 1994). Selected examples of the side reactions that occur during oligonucleotide synthesis are given below. Tri-O-acetyluridine (S.1) reacts with MSNT to produce the triazolo derivative S.2 (Figure 2.1.2; Reese and Ubasawa, 1980). During deprotection with ammonium hydroxide, S.2 gives cytidine (S.3). Interestingly, during deprotection with either the tetramethylguanidinium…

    Words: 1630 - Pages: 7
  • Pyrimidines: The Basic Structure Of DNA And RNA

    1. Pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic amines which, together with purines, form nucleotides. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids, the basic structural component of DNA and RNA. The pyrimidines in DNA are cytosine and thymine, and in RNA uracil replaces thymine (Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell, Farrell & Torres, 2013). 
DNA and RNA are found in the nuclei of all cells and their job is to transmit the information needed for cellular growth and reproduction (Averill & Eldredge,…

    Words: 1137 - Pages: 5
  • Nucleotide Essay

    Heterocyclic Bases There are five different bases are found in nucleotides of DNA and RNA. Only 4 bases are present in DNA and 4 bases are present in RNA. They are all heterocyclic bases. They are nitrogenous bases as they contain nitrogen in their rings. They form nitrogenous bonds with each other. Some bases are one ring bases and are similar in structure to the compound pyrimidine. Because of that, they are given names as the pyrimidines or the pyrimidine bases. There are three of them and…

    Words: 1340 - Pages: 6
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid Research Paper

    The bases all happen to be heteroaromatic, as they contain two different elements in their aromatic system, namely carbon and nitrogen. The purines, containing two rings, are an example of a fused ring system, where in fact the electrons in what appear to be two distinct rings are delocalised across the whole ring system as one. The pyrimidines, which contain only one ring, also have delocalised electrons, as all aromatic molecules do. The double stranded DNA molecule is formed when these…

    Words: 651 - Pages: 3
  • Essay On Bio Macromolecules

    think how this vast set of molecules that are in every living thing, from bacteria to human beings, are mostly made up by six elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus). These biopolymers have the properties to, from small monomers, build giant tridimensional structures with a lot of different functions. How physical and chemical properties of atoms make these macromolecules possible? What is the chemistry behind their three dimensional configuration? Chemistry inside…

    Words: 1823 - Pages: 7
  • The Importance Of Fats In Biology

    Each nucleotide is made up of one phosphate group (PO4), a five-carbon sugars (pentose),one of five nitrogenous base molecules, and one or more phosphate groups. The nitrogenous base contains one or more rings that have nitrogen atoms. To assemble the nucleotide, a phosphate group is attached to the five-carbon. Nucleotides are then linked in a dehydration reaction. Adjacent nucleotides are then joined in a phosphodiester linkage. A phosphate group links the sugar of the nucleotide. B. 1. The…

    Words: 1051 - Pages: 4
  • Difference Between B And Z DNA

    A, B and Z DNA Structure These three types of DNA all possess the similar property of a double helical structure formed from a sugar-phosphate backbone and containing the 4 bases, adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine, complementarily paired with hydrogen bonding. A and G are purines and have a double ring whereas T and C are pyrimidines and have only a single ring. Within the helix a pyrimidine is always paired with a purine such that G is always paired with C and T with A. The difference…

    Words: 748 - Pages: 3
  • Ultraviolet Radiation Lab Report

    on the control and experimental plates, prove that UV light does not target particular spores for mutations, according to the University of California Museum of Paleontology mutations occur randomly, however they can be affected by the environment, as seen in this experiment. In this experiment exposing the Penicillium notatum to UV the likelihood of mutations increased, but some or most mutations could have been a result of random inherited mutations. The experimental plate exposed to UV…

    Words: 861 - Pages: 4
  • Necrosis Case Study

    Calmodulin is an example of a protein that binds Calcium (2+), and binds to lead (394). Calmodulin is a Calcium dependent protein used for relaying intracellular signals to more than forty different enzymes (992). Lead binds secondary sites (allosteric sites) of calmodulin to cause a conformation change. The conformational changed induced by lead (Pb 2+) binding secondary sites inactivates calmodulin. Lead can target a variety of enzymes since it is able to not only displace ions bound to…

    Words: 1730 - Pages: 7
  • 1.2-Arylation Analysis

    In 2003, li Also as much coworkers70 synthesized 3-arylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines from imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine a unsubstituted heterocycle In those 3-position Toward performing regulate arylation response with aryl bromides. Those creator utilized Pd(OAc)2 (2 mol %) Concerning illustration An catalyst, PPh3 (4 mol %) Likewise An ligand, Also Cs2CO3 (2 equiv) Concerning illustration An base, those response advanced proficiently in 1,4-dioxane during 100 °C. Those yield might have been attained in…

    Words: 1297 - Pages: 6
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