Structure Of Cellulose

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cellulose. The protists and prokaryotes can hydrolyze the cellulose, which the cow or termite can then use.
Lipids
A. Fats- A fat is made of a fatty acid and a glycerol. A fatty acid is a long carbon chain with a carboxyl group on the end. It is made up of C-H bonds. Glycerol is an alcohol. Fats are used for energy storage. Fats can store two times as much energy as polysaccharides. Animals use fat instead of starch because fats can store more energy with less space. The adipose cell humans use to store excess fat also act as protection of vital organs and as a layer of insulation.
Phospholipids- Phospholipids are made up of two fatty acids bonded to a glycerol. A phosphate group is bonded to hydroxyl on the glycerol. The hydrocarbon tails
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Two amino acids bond in a peptide bond. It is a dehydration reaction where a molecule of water is released. The carboxyl group of one amino acid is bonded to the next amino acid. The polypeptide is formed backwards, one by one, at N-Terminus.
C. The primary structure of a protein is determined by the sequence of its amino acids. The polypeptide chain is then arranged into a three dimensional form. The sequence of the amino acids is directed by inherited genetic information. The primary structure then directs the secondary and tertiary structures.
D. The protein structure can fold improperly fold if the chemical or physical condition aren’t right. If the pH is too low or too high, if the salt concentration isn’t within a range, or the temperature is too high, a protein may become denatured. When a protein denatures, the weak chemical bonds break and the protein’s shape collapses and loses its original shape. Proteins can also denature if it is moved from a polar solution to a nonpolar solution. The polypeptide chains flip so the hydrophobic parts face outward. Chemicals which can break or disrupt hydrogen binds, ionic bonds, and disulfide bridges. If any of these bonds are broken, the protein loses its shape and becomes denatured. High temperatures can also cause a protein to denature. The heat can cause the weak bonds in the polypeptide chain to
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1. The two different nitrogenous bases are the pyrimidines and the purines. Purines are double ringed structures. Of the five nitrogen bases, adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines. Pyrimidines are single ring structures. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines. Pyrimidines have six carbon rings and nitrogen atoms. Purines are bigger because of a six member ring connected to a five member ring. The two groups are different because of the chemical groups attached to the rings.
2. A nucleotide is made up of a five carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and one or more phosphate groups. Nucleosides are very similar, but do not have the phosphate group.
3. Deoxyribose is the sugar in DNA. Ribose is the sugar in RNA. The difference between the two is deoxyribose does not have sugar on the second carbon in the ring.
4. The 5’ end of the nucleotide has a phosphate attached to 5’ carbon. The 3’ end has a hydroxyl group on the 3’ carbon.
C. DNA has the famous double helix shape with two polynucleotides wound around each other. The backbones run opposite to each other (5’-3’). The sugar phosphate chain is on the outside. The nitrogenous bases are in the middle of the helix. The two side s are connected with hydrogen

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