A. Fats- A fat is made of a fatty acid and a glycerol. A fatty acid is a long carbon chain with a carboxyl group on the end. It is made up of C-H bonds. Glycerol is an alcohol. Fats are used for energy storage. Fats can store two times as much energy as polysaccharides. Animals use fat instead of starch because fats can store more energy with less space. The adipose cell humans use to store excess fat also act as protection of vital organs and as a layer of insulation.
Phospholipids- Phospholipids are made up of two fatty acids bonded to a glycerol. A phosphate group is bonded to hydroxyl on the glycerol. The hydrocarbon tails …show more content…
Each nucleotide is made up of one phosphate group (PO4), a five-carbon sugars (pentose),one of five nitrogenous base molecules, and one or more phosphate groups. The nitrogenous base contains one or more rings that have nitrogen atoms. To assemble the nucleotide, a phosphate group is attached to the five-carbon. Nucleotides are then linked in a dehydration reaction. Adjacent nucleotides are then joined in a phosphodiester linkage. A phosphate group links the sugar of the nucleotide.
B. 1. The two different nitrogenous bases are the pyrimidines and the purines. Purines are double ringed structures. Of the five nitrogen bases, adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines. Pyrimidines are single ring structures. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines. Pyrimidines have six carbon rings and nitrogen atoms. Purines are bigger because of a six member ring connected to a five member ring. The two groups are different because of the chemical groups attached to the …show more content…
A nucleotide is made up of a five carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and one or more phosphate groups. Nucleosides are very similar, but do not have the phosphate group.
3. Deoxyribose is the sugar in DNA. Ribose is the sugar in RNA. The difference between the two is deoxyribose does not have sugar on the second carbon in the ring.
4. The 5’ end of the nucleotide has a phosphate attached to 5’ carbon. The 3’ end has a hydroxyl group on the 3’ carbon.
C. DNA has the famous double helix shape with two polynucleotides wound around each other. The backbones run opposite to each other (5’-3’). The sugar phosphate chain is on the outside. The nitrogenous bases are in the middle of the helix. The two side s are connected with hydrogen