Nucleotide Essay

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MSA University, faculty of pharmacy,
Bio chemistry department.
Course code PB301
Nucleotides
Student name:
ID:
Under supervision of DR:
Teaching assistant

Structure Nucleic acids are polymers consist of units called nucleotides. These mononucleotide units react together by intermolecular dehydration reactions that create phosphate ester bonds. Those reactions are either, catalyzed or specialized enzymes.
The nucleotide units are created by smaller types of components. Each nucleotide consist of three parts: a phosphate unit, a sugar unit, and a heterocyclic base.
Phosphate
The sugar-phosphate backbone gives the structural its shape and how it looks like, including DNA and RNA. This backbone consists of alternating sugar and phosphate
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It will either be ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA. The "deoxyribose” is less than normal ribose by 1 oxygen atom. That missing oxygen happens to be from the second carbon, so the accurate name for deoxyribose should be 2-deoxyribose.
Because of the last asymmetric carbon atom which has an OH group, these nucleotides are given its complete names of “D-ribose and also D-2-deoxyribose”.
This is the ring form of the ribose and deoxyribose that are used in the nucleotide units. The OHs units in these molecules have a certain function. These functions are applied to both ribose and deoxyribone:
The first oxygen in the first carbon in each nucleotide becomes the beta OH which bonds to the base unit.
The OH in the second position is missing in RNA. So it helps us to differentiate between the ribose in RNA and the deoxyribose in DNA.
The OH on the third carbon will be bonded to other nucleotides by the phosphate group making a line of nulceotides.
The fourth OH carbon plays role in the closure of the nucleotide ring.
The fifth Oh nucleotide carbon bonds to the phosphate unit of the same
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For example, they have delivered many lifesaving drugs for the treatment of cancers and viral infections. There are new methods for controlling gene expression. So removing a gen or change its nucleotides can change the characteristic of the cell.
The remarkable chemical properties of nucleotide polymers allow us to easily detect them with easy tests like example SNP detection, nanoprobes and (bio)sensors. They help us to detect some diseases and presence of some cells easily.
They allow us to design and construct a new biological devices and systems for useful purposes. It allow us to expand the genetic code is one of the main stream ideas to synthetic life. It can help us to understand organization, exponential growth and autocatalysis of different cells.
This GRC has the aim to develop on nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids in medicine, biology, chemical - and material sciences. They help us to increase number of Receptors, Apatmers/Aptazymes, Epigenetics, Structural Biology and Antiviral/Antitumoral

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