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  • The Pain Receptors Are Called Nociceptors

    ChanMee Bae Psych 421 Take-Home Exam Total 40 points with 2 One-Point Extra Credit 1. Where are the soma of the receptor cells for the sensation located? (1pt) Dorsal root ganglion of the spinal cord. (Students should state the spinal cord to get the point) 2. The pain receptors are called “nociceptors”, named one of the subtype of the nociceptors, and what are the one of four differences in those receptors? (2pts) 1) Mechanical. Thermal. or Polymodal. 2) Morphology of the peripheral ending. Sensitivity to stimulus energy. Diameter of the axon. Whether the axon has myelin or not. 3. Which transient receptor potential (TRP receptors) seem to be involved in the mechanical pain? (1pt) Mammalian TRPA1 channels seem to be involved in mechanical pain. 4. What are the two of three CNS pathways for somatosensory? (2pts) 1) Anterolateral system 2) Dorsal Column Medial Lemniscal system 3) Spino-Cerebellar tract 5. What kind of pain does Dr. Moseley studied and what does he do for placebo group? (2pts) 1) Knee pain/Osteoarthritis 2) put under anesthesia; just an incision without any surgical treatment of knee pain. 6. What is the mechanisms of the acupuncture? In other words, what parts of CNS activated and/or deactivated? (2pts) 1) Acupuncture activates structures of descending anti-nociceptive pathway and 2) deactivates multiple limbic area subserving pain association. 7. What is the effects of opiates and opioids on nociceptor signal transmission? (2pts) Opiates 1) decrease the…

    Words: 1306 - Pages: 6
  • Chronic Pain

    Chronic pain is defined as a long period of time where the pain persists and does not let down. Chronic pain is very different than acute pain as it is more than just a sensation that lets us know we may have a possible injury. This type of pain is usually due to a medical condition or damage to the body. Chronic pain can cause many different types of feeling and emotions such as hopelessness, anger, anxiety, etc. Some ways to treat chronic pain are through surgery, physical therapy,…

    Words: 814 - Pages: 4
  • Emotional Pain In Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner

    Pain is a necessary aspect of life. It can be broken down into two parts: emotional pain and physical pain. The latter could be a burn or a broken bone and is felt by the nerves in the skin that send signals to the brain. Emotional suffering is a pain not felt by nerves, nor can it be seen like a broken bone on an X-ray. Both make life uncomfortable but unfortunately, both are necessary. Getting hurt could mean both in an emotional or physical way but, without pain, there would be no way to…

    Words: 1086 - Pages: 5
  • Pharmacokinetics Of S)-Ketoprofen Case Study

    patella of one of the animal's hind legs, by intra-articular injection of 50 μL of 30% v/v uric acid solution. Immediately, an electrode was attached to the plantar region of both hind limbs. The animals were allowed to recover from the anesthetic and placed on a stainless steel cylinder 30 cm in diameter. The cylinder was rotated at a speed of 4 rpm forcing the animals to walk. The variable to be measured was the contact time of each electrode on the cylinder. When each electrode placed on the…

    Words: 1474 - Pages: 6
  • Inula Britanna

    been used as an antioxidant (Bai et al., 2005), anti-cancer treatment (Bai et al., 2006), and antimicrobial agent (Lee et al., 2013). In a previous study, it was shown that other species of this plant, such as Inula helenium, also have anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects (Fallahzade and Mohammadi, 2016). A variety of chemical constituents have been isolated from IBL These include steroids, terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and triterpenoids), phenolics, and flavonoids (Lee et al.,…

    Words: 867 - Pages: 4
  • Mirroring In The Monkey Brain

    neuron systems in the observer (31,32, 37) with some physical locations of pain more sensitive to mirroring in the observer than others (40). The anterior insula, an area involved in the processing of both emotional and sensory information (a combination of which is defining of pain perception), has mirror qualities as well as the anterior cingulate cortex, a part of the limbic system (Morrison, Lloyd, di Pellegrino & Roberts, 2004; Morrison & Downing, 2007; Botvinick, Jha, Bylsma, Fabian,…

    Words: 831 - Pages: 4
  • Pediatric Pain Assessments

    (MAPS) assesses five parameters which include: heart rate and blood pressure vital signs, the pattern of breathing, facial expressions, movements of the body and difficulty of arousal (Ramelet, Rees, McDonald, & Abu-Saad, 2007). The Cardiac Analgesic Assessment Scale (CAAS) was developed to standardize the rescue pain management protocol in mechanically ventilated patients postoperatively (Suominen et al., 2004). All of these scales assess nonverbal pain in different ways, however, the FLACC…

    Words: 963 - Pages: 4
  • Animal's Arguments Against Animal Rights

    Harrison’s argument with animal skinning, animals should not be feeling painful even when skinned alive since they lack rational thinking. The nature of argument that Harrison held is similar to valuing the importance of intelligence over the capacity to feel pain, and his argument does not seem to be compelling as well. Evidence indicating that an animal can detect pain at the same stimulus intensity level that a human do has been available. Humans or animals should evoke an aversive response…

    Words: 1194 - Pages: 5
  • Animal Research Ethics

    according to USDA data, nowadays animals used in pain research are fewer in numbers than several decades ago. There are grounds for serious doubts as to whether USDA data is indisputable evidence for the improvement of animal treatment. It is reasonable to assume that the scientific research with unprotected by the law animals, such as most invertebrates and vertebrate larvae, which are unable to feed and move independently, may also cause pain and distress. However, in these experiments the…

    Words: 1587 - Pages: 7
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