1. Where are the soma of the receptor cells for the sensation located? (1pt)
Dorsal root ganglion of the spinal cord. (Students should state the spinal cord to get the point)
2. The pain receptors are called “nociceptors”, named one of the subtype of the nociceptors, and what are the one of four differences in those receptors? (2pts)
1) Mechanical. Thermal. or Polymodal. 2) Morphology of the peripheral ending. Sensitivity to stimulus energy. Diameter of the axon. Whether the axon has myelin or not.
3. Which transient receptor potential (TRP receptors) seem to be involved in the mechanical pain? (1pt)
Mammalian TRPA1 channels seem to be involved in mechanical …show more content…
What are the two of three CNS pathways for somatosensory? (2pts)
1) Anterolateral system 2) Dorsal Column Medial Lemniscal system 3) Spino-Cerebellar tract
5. What kind of pain does Dr. Moseley studied and what does he do for placebo group? (2pts)
1) Knee pain/Osteoarthritis 2) put under anesthesia; just an incision without any surgical treatment of knee pain.
6. What is the mechanisms of the acupuncture? In other words, what parts of CNS activated and/or deactivated? (2pts)
1) Acupuncture activates structures of descending anti-nociceptive pathway and 2) deactivates multiple limbic area subserving pain association.
7. What is the effects of opiates and opioids on nociceptor signal transmission? (2pts)
Opiates 1) decrease the duration of the postsynaptic potential, probably by reducing 〖Ca〗^(2+) influx and thus decreasing the release of transmitter from the primary sensory terminals. 2) Hyperpolarize the dorsal horn neurons by activating a K^+conductance and thus decrease the amplitude of the post synaptic potential in the dorsal neuron.
8. What is the “Gate Theory” of pain by Melzack and Wall? (1pt)
The firing of neurons in the cord responsible for pain is a balance between the nociceptive input and the activity of non-pain input to the …show more content…
There are three general types of cerebral cortical projections? State two cerebral cortical projections briefly. (2pts)
1) Associational: cerebral cortex will project to the neighboring cortical area that are next to a given area. 2) Callosal/commissural: cortical areas will project to the mirror area in the other hemisphere via the Corpus Callosum. 3) Projection connections: cortical neurons will project outside the cortex to sub-cortical areas throughout the CNS from telencephalic structures all the way down to the spinal cord.
14. State projection of Layer V of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex (1pt)
Layer V projects to the dorsal column nuclei, as well as to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord; and to the striatum and brain stem in general.
15. What is the pathway of the projections of the Secondary Somatosensory Cortex (SII)? (1pts)
Projects to the Insula which then projects to amygdala and hippocampus.
16. How the chemicals which released during tissue damage sensitized nociceptors? (1pt)
Act to either decrease the threshold of nociceptors or to directly activate certain nociceptors.
17. Name one chemical that sensitized nociceptors (1pt)
One of the following: histamine, Ach, 5HT, Prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, and Substance