Nervous System Anatomy Study Guide

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Anatomy review for the nervous system - Week 12 Study Guide
1. Distinguish the difference between neuron, neuroglial cells, Schwann cells, neurofibrils, and astrocytes.
Neuron: masses of nerve cells in nervous tissue
Neuroglial Cells: provide neurons physiological requirements (fill spaces, give support to neurons)
Schwann Cells: larger axons of peripheral neurons enclosed in sheaths
Neurofibrils: thin, long fibrils that run through body of neuron and extends to axon and dendrites; gives neuron shape and support
Astrocytes: cells found between neurons; provide structural support
2. What is the difference between dendrites and axons?
Dendrites: short, branched fibers and neurons main receptive surface; carries impulses to the cell body; usually multiple dendrites per cell body
Axon: slight elevation of the cell body; carries nerve impulses away from the cell body; only one per cell body
3. What color does myelin (the lipid-protein layers that form a sheath around an axon) appear? white 4. What are the 2 main parts of the nervous system?
Central Nervous System & Peripheral Nervous System
5. What are 3 functions of the nervous system?
Detect changes inside and outside of the body make decisions based on the info they receive
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Which one deals with voluntary muscular movements? cerebellum 17. What is affected by Parkinson’s and Huntington’s?
Movement of the body
18. What are the 2 divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
Somatic nervous system & autonomic nervous system
19. What is the outermost portion of the cerebrum called?
Cerebral cortex
20. How do drugs that decrease a membrane's permeability to sodium affect the perception of pain? How to they affect nerve impulses? When are these types of drugs typically used?
It prevents impulses from passing through the affected regions, & when it reaches the brain, it doesn't inform it of sensations of touch and pain usually used during surgeries
21. How does caffeine stimulate the activity of the nervous system?
Stimulant; increases alertness, reduces fine motor coordination
22. How do amphetamines stimulate the nervous system?
They cause the release of norepinephrine
23. What is an analgesic?
A person who has lost the ability to sense pain but hasn't lost consciousness
24. Between which two layers of the meninges is cerebrospinal fluid found?
Arachnoid and pia mater
25. What is the difference between quadriplegia and

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