NMDA receptor

    Page 1 of 6 - About 52 Essays
  • Essay On Grass Tetany

    most common ion within cattle and it plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal firing. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor that are responsible for synaptic plasticity, learning, memory and excitation-contraction coupling with a skeletal muscle (Aydin and Uzun, 2008). A mammal experiencing homeostasis will have magnesium bound within the channel of the NMDA receptor, thereby preventing the potentiation of an action potential through the motor-end plate. The blockage of magnesium within the NMDA receptor is an essential mechanism to reduce the spontaneous firing at the motor-end plate (Aydin and Uzun, 2008). It is not until neurotransmitters such as glutamate or glycine bind to the NMDA receptor that the magnesium cation is dislodged and the action potential is allowed to propagate through the NMDA channel where it causes the release of sodium, calcium or other essential substances involved in neurotransmission (Aydin and Uzun, 2008). In regards to grass tetany, cattle who are subjected to prolonged periods of hypomagnesemia will develop muscle twitching, incoordination, staggering irritability, followed by coma and death (Aydin and Uzun, 2008). The development of the symptoms is result of the magnesium levels dropping to a concentration that no longer allows for the proper operation of NMDA receptors. If the concentration of magnesium within bovine plasma falls below 0.72 to 0.74 mM (1.7 to 1.8 mg/dL), the animal will…

    Words: 1994 - Pages: 8
  • Alzheimer's Degenerative Disease

    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, which plays a role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. It has been observed that there is approximately a 90% loss of acetylcholine in the brains of people afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease (Boeree, 2009). The α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7- nAChRs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus (Prickaerts et al., 2011). Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is the constant increase in the efficiency of synaptic transmission. Research…

    Words: 1522 - Pages: 6
  • Essay On Infantile Amnesia

    hippocampus is involved in the acquisition of the latent memory, and iii) the infant hippocampus matures through experience using mechanisms typical of developmental critical periods, including expression switch of NMDA receptor subunits from 2B to 2A. The NMDA receptor subunit switch is dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). We found that blocking either BDNF or mGluR5 blocked the learning-induced switch of 2B to 2A. Conversely,…

    Words: 944 - Pages: 4
  • TRAMADEL And Morphine: A Comparative Analysis

    C0MPARING AND CONTRASTING OPIATE ANALGESICS, TRAMADOL AND MORPHINE BMS291 An opioid is defined as “A drug that contains opium, opium derivatives or synthetic drugs that have an opium-like effect.” (Harris, 2010) Morphine is a prototype opioid that is used to treat patients with moderate to severe pain usually associated with postoperative pain or neoplastic disease. (Tiziani, 2010) Morphine produces pharmacological actions such as pain relief, by acting on receptors located on neural cell…

    Words: 1523 - Pages: 7
  • Adenosine Receptor Caffeine Analysis

    Adenosine receptor blockage’s effects on the electrophysiology of HCTP/OR producing neurons of the Hypothalamus – receptor blockage mediated by Caffeine Introduction In this experiment, the quantification of firing rate changes on a specific neural sub-group will be analyzed via whole cell patch-clamping and the application of the common psychoactive drug-caffeine. The significance of quantifying the electrical signaling of the chosen neuron is to proportionally quantify the effects the chosen…

    Words: 1198 - Pages: 5
  • Intersex Sexual Development

    that can lead to one having a DSD, including but not limited to, androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and conditions resulting in genital ambiguity (having the existence of both male and female reproductive organs or it being unclear.) Also, there have been found to be many different chromosomal combinations present within the population including XX, XO (Turner Syndrome), XY, XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), and XYY. (Aulette, Wittner, 2015) (Fausto-Sterling,…

    Words: 1291 - Pages: 6
  • Beneficial Effects Of The Beta Adrenergic Antagonists

    post-myocardial infarction (post-MI). COPD is a progressive respiratory condition characterized by the inadequate airflow which makes the breathing more difficult. COPD patients are commonly treated with the bronchodilators such as the beta-2 adrenergic agonists.1 The beta-2 agonists stimulate the beta-2 adrenergic receptors which are found primarily in the lungs and peripheral vasculature. The stimulation of these receptors elicits airway dilation and aids the breathing process. Hypertension…

    Words: 1074 - Pages: 5
  • Intrinsic Heart Experiment

    Intrinsic Cardiac Activity: The first peak of the electrocardiogram graph corresponded to the atrial contraction of the heart. The second peak of the electrocardiogram graph corresponded to the ventricular contraction of the heart. The third peak observed corresponded to the relaxation of the heart. Frank-Starling Mechanism: There was no significant trend observed in ventricular contractile force in response to increasing imposed length of the heart (Fig 1a). A maximum ventricular contractile…

    Words: 766 - Pages: 4
  • Cannabinoid Analysis

    As of now, two cannabinoids (marijuana), dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone (Cesamet), are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).1 According to an article about the use of cannabinoids and the treatment of chemotherapy side effects, cannabinoids are shown to have a significant neuro-modulatory function in decreasing CINV.1 CB1 cannabinoid receptors are present in the central nervous system, while recent evidence proposes that…

    Words: 839 - Pages: 4
  • Case Study: Glasgow Coma Scale

    These receptors are found in the cardiac muscle and their stimulation has a positive inotropic effect (increases the contractility of the heart). It does so without significantly increasing heart rate or affecting peripheral vascular resistance (as it does not activate alpha adrenergic receptors of blood vessels). The result is increased cardiac output via increased stroke volume (Tariq & Aronow, 2015). In the case of Mrs Kelly the cardiac muscles are stunned by ischemia and have decreased…

    Words: 777 - Pages: 4
  • Previous
    Page 1 2 3 4 5 6

Related Topics:

Popular Topics: