NMDA receptor

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    Teratoma Essay

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    discovery, doctors removed the teratomas and administered immune-suppressing medication, resulting in the rapid recovery of three out of the four women (Braverman 3). However, they still had to discover the source of the problem. In Dalmau’s lab, researchers exposed rat brains to the patients’ spinal fluid. Bingo. The brains showed evidence of an attack by antibodies, or specialized proteins that protect the immune system, which were most likely produced as part of the body’s response to the patients’ teratomas (Dalmau 63). Basically, teratomas contain various cell types that, when they cross-react with NMDA receptors, which can affect memory and learning in the brain, basically make one’s system vulnerable to a breakdown of the immune system. This creates a confusion in the body that produces autoantibodies which…

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    Essay On Grass Tetany

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    most common ion within cattle and it plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal firing. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor that are responsible for synaptic plasticity, learning, memory and excitation-contraction coupling with a skeletal muscle (Aydin and Uzun, 2008). A mammal experiencing homeostasis will have magnesium bound within the channel of the NMDA receptor, thereby preventing the potentiation of an action potential through the…

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    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, which plays a role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. It has been observed that there is approximately a 90% loss of acetylcholine in the brains of people afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease (Boeree, 2009). The α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7- nAChRs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus (Prickaerts et al., 2011). Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is the constant increase in the efficiency of synaptic transmission. Research…

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    hippocampus is involved in the acquisition of the latent memory, and iii) the infant hippocampus matures through experience using mechanisms typical of developmental critical periods, including expression switch of NMDA receptor subunits from 2B to 2A. The NMDA receptor subunit switch is dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). We found that blocking either BDNF or mGluR5 blocked the learning-induced switch of 2B to 2A. Conversely,…

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    Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a disease occurring when antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system attack NMDA receptors in the brain. NMDA receptors are proteins that control electrical impulses in the brain. Their functions are critical for judgement, perception of reality, human interaction, the formation and retrieval of memory, and the control of unconscious activities (such as breathing, swallowing, etc), also known as autonomic functions. Common symptoms are flu-like…

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    is the tryptamine molecule that is primarily responsible for Iboga's effect. Ibogaine similar to serotonin, but with a methyl molecule where the hydroxy group would be, and a more complex toluene structure with an ethyl group coming off. Ibogaine acts on almost all receptors in the brain, but primarily the…

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    post-myocardial infarction (post-MI). COPD is a progressive respiratory condition characterized by the inadequate airflow which makes the breathing more difficult. COPD patients are commonly treated with the bronchodilators such as the beta-2 adrenergic agonists.1 The beta-2 agonists stimulate the beta-2 adrenergic receptors which are found primarily in the lungs and peripheral vasculature. The stimulation of these receptors elicits airway dilation and aids the breathing process. Hypertension…

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    Adenosine receptor blockage’s effects on the electrophysiology of HCTP/OR producing neurons of the Hypothalamus – receptor blockage mediated by Caffeine Introduction In this experiment, the quantification of firing rate changes on a specific neural sub-group will be analyzed via whole cell patch-clamping and the application of the common psychoactive drug-caffeine. The significance of quantifying the electrical signaling of the chosen neuron is to proportionally quantify the effects the chosen…

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    that can lead to one having a DSD, including but not limited to, androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and conditions resulting in genital ambiguity (having the existence of both male and female reproductive organs or it being unclear.) Also, there have been found to be many different chromosomal combinations present within the population including XX, XO (Turner Syndrome), XY, XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), and XYY. (Aulette, Wittner, 2015) (Fausto-Sterling,…

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    Intrinsic Cardiac Activity: The first peak of the electrocardiogram graph corresponded to the atrial contraction of the heart. The second peak of the electrocardiogram graph corresponded to the ventricular contraction of the heart. The third peak observed corresponded to the relaxation of the heart. Frank-Starling Mechanism: There was no significant trend observed in ventricular contractile force in response to increasing imposed length of the heart (Fig 1a). A maximum ventricular contractile…

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