Fiber optic communication systems are light wave systems that employ optical fibers for transmitting information from one point to other through an optical fiber. The driving force behind the widespread use of fiber optic communications is the demand for economic, reliable transmission media that can transmit required information capacity. The transmission capacity of optical fibers has drastically improved over the years. Today, optical communications up to 100 gb/s for several kilometers have been introduced and research is still going on to enhance its capacity to terabits per second. This paper gives an overview of fiber optic communications – structure of optical fibers, different types of optical fibers, principle, fiber optic communications,…
means of communication and data transfer including 3G, 4G, LTE for mobile network, however optical network is required for the communication of large amount of data in short period of time. Many smarter devices are being added to network to fulfil consumer’s demand. There are many complications and strains have arisen to optical networking with the advancement of technology. some management and security techniques can be adopted to get the best out of network infrastructure. More security and…
considering the demerits of optical fiber networks. Despite of the fact that the cost for fiber is dropping by 60% per year and is beneficial in long run, its initial installation cost is still high and is not affordable to all vendors. Per unit cost of fiber cable is more than that of copper cable.
Secondly, as the technology is still new and improvising, it requires skilled manpower for its installation, operation and maintenance. Further it requires new equipment compared to prevalent…
signals, into a form ie readable. Fiber optic sensors have numerous advantages over other conventional electronic sensors. Some important advantages are as below
• Ability to integrate different structure.
• Their inability to conduct electric current.
• Highly resistive to electromagnetic interference.
• Lightweight with high sensitivity.
• Multiplexing capability.
1.1 Optical fiber: Basics
An optical fiber is composed of three parts …
environment (citation). Both the chemicals sorbing onto the plastic and leaching from it are possible endocrine disruptors and are carcinogenic.
A. Introduce the plastic fibers topic
1. Definition of fiber
2. Where they are found
1. Clothes/ waste water effluent
a. Browne et al., 2011
a. Habib et al., 1996
b. Zubris and Richards., 2005
Somewhat surprisingly, microplastic accumulation in systems other than marine and aquatic habitats, especially in the inland…
Spinning of Nylon Fiber:
The turning of the nylon filaments is completed with dissolve turning. There are two strategies for liquefy turning:
1. Grid turning
2. Extruder turning.
Lattice turning is utilized for the generation of better fibers. The nylon chips are made to fall on a hot matrix that melts the nylon pieces. The liquid nylon is pumped through a sand channel to the spinneret. The sort of fiber created relies on the quantity of gaps on the spinneret, the size and the state of the…
Characteristics of the Four Elements
The four Elements possess unique characteristics and their functions are related to these characteristics. These characteristics have been explained carefully, with ultimate simplicity; where accurate and deep meanings have been considered which will also been elaborated in future sections.
Briefly, the four Elements include the following components:
a) Fire: comes with Heat and Dryness. It is the lightest of all Elements
b) Air: comes…
FIBER OPTIC SENSORS
Mr. Prasanna M.Thawale
School of Computer science and Engineering, California State University Northridge, Northridge-91324.
Independent Study On Fiber Optic Sensors
Guide: Prof. Nagwa Bekir
Topic: Fiber Optic Sensors
Fiber optic sensor since their emergence have been a sector of keen interest for researchers because of their specific and exclusive characteristics thus resulting into the…
Expensive, therefore not an economical substitute for cast iron.
Polymer Impregnated Concrete (PIC)- Improved damping capacity (High damping at lower frequency range
Hollow Composites Sphere- It consists of hollow spheres as filler and epoxy resin as matrix material. Reduced weight. Higher thermal coefficient of expansion than steel. Hollow sphere consists of a mixture of metal oxides or plastic and size ranges from 10µm to 2mm.
Cementitious Composite Materials- Cement as binders.…
Knee Wraps: The Benefits and Drawbacks
What are knee wraps?
The knee wrap is similar to the wrist wrap regarding the logic that applies to both. Knee wraps are also to an “Ace” bandage, except that they are much thicker and stronger. The elastic material that is used to make the knee wrap is the same found in wrist wraps. The allowed width for knee wraps is 8 cm (3 inches), although they can sometimes be 2.0 meter, 2.5 meters or even 3.5 meters long.
Advantages of using knee wraps