# Errors and residuals in statistics

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Data For the purpose of this analysis, I choose to use the World Bank 2007 data to come up with a detailed conclusion. I used 32 different countries scattered throughout the world in my analysis, to provide an unbiased result. Three relevant variables were chosen to be analyzed and discussed later on in this section. These variables as mentioned earlier include foreign direct investments, agriculture and industry. The graph provided below is a summary statistic of the three variables in thirty two countries that were randomly chosen. In the table provided, you will see the average, median, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum of the given set of data. All information provided below was taken from World Bank 2007 database and calculations were calculated using the SPSS software: Descriptive Statistics N Range Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Agriculture, value added (annual % growth) 28 27 -11 16 2.96 5.928 Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP) 31 27 0 27 5.06 6.708 Industry, value added (annual % growth) 28 16 -1 15 4.36 3.664 Valid N (listwise) 28…

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These data will be used to make predictions about the likelihood of teacher retention or to predict whether teachers are likely to leave teaching or migrate to a new school. Descriptive statistics will be used to uncover the presence of each working condition in each of the four types of schools under study. Inferential statistics will be applied to relate each working condition to teacher retention in each of the four types of school. The potential for bias exists because the survey results…

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Standardized coefficients related to structural equation modeling (Path Analysis) The standardized coefficients are used to compare the effects of each component of the model. The absolute value of the coefficient is larger, which means that the impact of the independent variable is greater on the dependent variable. The direct effects of Amos path analysis of statistic t, used to assess the significance of the coefficients in the model. Since the default of significance level, is 0.05, so…

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Factor analysis of dimension deductions function should be used to explore main factors from all of initial information sources components. KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) model is a test for sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s test. The value of KMO varies between 0 and 1. I think that KMO statistic should be greater than 0.5 as an accepting value. Furthermore, the value between 0.5 and 0.7 are represented as general fitting, the value indicates more than 0.7 but less than 0.9, it is great and the value…

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In the 1940s, Raymond Cattell was able to take Allport’s 4000 traits and boil it down through factor analysis. Factor analysis refers to the mathematical consolidation of commonly appearing variables and the summarising of correlating data. He used factor analysis to eliminate synonyms and the very rare or unused traits (Friedman & Schustack, 2014). Cattell was able to reduce the list of traits from over 4000 to 16 personality variables. This reduction in personality variables was attributed to…

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Question 2: Map scale is the ratio of the straight line distance between any two points on a map to the straight line distance between the same two points on the earth’s surface. Now when looking at map scale there a few concepts for instance, ratio (representational fraction) scale is a concept of map scale. Ratio scale is always neutral in the scale measurement used on the map. So when looking at a map scale of 1:50 000 it means that 1 unit of measurement on the map is equal to 50 000 of the…

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In this work, we assume two different potentials for the initial and final heavy quarkonia and the intermediary hybrid states. The most popular potential form for the study of heavy quarkonia is the Cornell potential  V(r)= -κ/r + b r (2.13) Usually many authors prefer α_s (r) instead of κ. The relation between them is κ=(4α_s (r))/3 and α_s (r) can treated as constant for bb ̅ and cc ̅…

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minimizing the summation of errors in absolute quantities. According to Sykes, unbiasedness is when a parameter’s true value equals the mean of probability distribution. He states that consistency is comparison of different estimators that are unbiased and finding the lowest variance. He also defines consistency as generation of accurate estimates by taking advantage of extra data. The difference in interpretation of coefficient estimates is that multiple regression has the coefficients γX while…

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The Kriging weights w_i1,w_i2,w_i3,…w_ik can be used to estimate the fair value of VA contracts x ⃑_i by the following formula, y ̂_i=∑_(j=1)^k▒〖w_ij∙y_j 〗. The kriging weights can be calculated by the following linear equations, Where the is a control variable, which is used to make sure that ∑_(j=1)^k▒w_ij =1. V_rs=α+exp⁡(-3/β D(z ⃑_r,z ⃑_s,λ)),r,s=1,2,3,…,k, D_ij=α+exp⁡(-3/β D(x ⃑_i,z ⃑_j,λ)),j=1,2,3,…,k, The D(.) function is the distance function mentioned in the clustering section,α≥0…

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Weight Estimation using AHP In this section weight estimation using AHP is provided, where first dependency matrix is created based on saaty’s scale. Referring to matrix A1, every attribute is compared with others, ex. DT (Distance) first compared with itself so value is 1, then DT is compared with TT (Travel Time) as in this case TT is moderately important than DT is value will be 1/3, when DT is compared with PCU (Traffic Volume), in this case DT is moderately important than…

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