Tyrosine

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  • Achondroplasia Case Study

    intramolecular bonding to form the dimer complex does not have substantial changes during helix to helix contact. In the monomer state, the N-terminal is flexible however once dimerization has transpired, the N-terminal is stabilized (5). This stabilization is achieved from intra-monomeric and inter-monomeric NOE connectivity. In this region hydrogen bonding is occurring in the amide groups Val372 and Tyr373 with the carbonyl groups that are located on the backbone (Glu368, Ala369, and Gly370). The 310- region also becomes more stiff and the positioning in relation to the α-helical portion is altered (5). FGFR3 also consists of an extracellular domain with three immunoglobulin subdomains (D1, D2, D3,), a transmembrane domain (TM), and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase activity. The functions of FGFR3 are dependent on ligands, specifically fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and heparin sulfate proteoglycans (6). These ligands bind to the D2, and D3 immunoglobulin subdomains of FGFR3 to stabilize the dimer complex as well as augment the functions of FGFR3. Conversely, D1 functions to inhibit FGFR3. Although the D2 and D3 immunoglobulins trigger the functions of FGFR3. FGFR3 can phosphorylate marginally without the ligation of fibroblast growth factors. This phosphorylation of FGFR3 in the absence of a bound ligand is termed “basal” phosphorylation. Once a ligand binds, a dimeric adapter protein Grb2 inhibits the basal phosphorylation of FGFR3 by catching the mobile kinase domain…

    Words: 1420 - Pages: 6
  • Evolution Of Dopamine

    dopamine to act in the central nervous system, it relies on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which are enzyme catalysts, as well as vesicle transporters (DAT, vMAT), degradation enzymes (MAO and COMT), and D1 and D2 receptors on target cells (Kapsimali, 2000). The enzymes TH and AADC, as well as the transporter vMAT and D1 and D2 receptors, are present in bilaterian groups, excluding sponges, cnidarians, ctenophores, and placozoans. MAO…

    Words: 1120 - Pages: 5
  • Thyroid Informative Speech

    Are you struggling with a slow metabolism, fatigue, weight gain or trouble maintaining a healthy weight? Constipation, swinging moods or depression, dry skin, low energy levels, memory and concentration problems can also be symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. You can support your thyroid balance by visiting a doctor for tests, then under their supervision, treating it with natural supplements and lifestyle changes. What is the Thyroid? The thyroid is a small-butterfly shaped gland located in…

    Words: 770 - Pages: 4
  • Phenylketonuria Case Study

    in decreased BH4 levels and consequently phenylketonuria due to the elevated plasma Phe concentrations. Neurological dysfunction requires the movement of Phe into the brain as mediated by the large neutral amino acid carrier L-aminoacid transporter 1 (LAT1; Surtees and Blau, 2000). There are several mechanisms described in current literature on how elevated Phe levels in the brain cause neurological dysfunction. The exact mechanism by which myelination of brain white matter (axons) are affected…

    Words: 1112 - Pages: 5
  • Chronic Leukemia Research Paper

    The activation of the pathway RAS and JAK pathway also results in the decrease p53 production. o P53 is a tumor protein that regulates the cell cycle. Suppression of this protein causes abnormalities in the cell cycle and thus abnormal growth. Decreased p53 is a hallmark of any cancer which results in the formation of tumors and abnormal growth. Treatment of CML varies from phase to phase. There is a variety of medication that can be taken to reduce the number of WBC. Some of these…

    Words: 378 - Pages: 2
  • Dopamine Reaction Lab Report

    DA is synthesized in the brain, kidneys, plants, and most multicellular animals. The first step in the biosynthesis of Dopamine uses the enzyme Tyrosine Hydroxylase which is biosynthesised. The complete reaction for this is as follows: L-tyrosine + THFA + O2 + Fe2+ --> L-dopa + DHFA + H2O + Fe2+. For the formation of L-dopa, L-tyrosine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and ferrous iron are essential. The second step in the biosynthesis of dopamine is biosynthesised by the enzyme dopa…

    Words: 521 - Pages: 3
  • Filial Imprinting Essay

    The other main component of filial imprinting is T3. Triiodothyronine starts the beginning process of the imprinting and learning period. In the precocial infants, T3 is being rapidly produced in the brain vascular endothelial cells. Thesi whole entire process is crucial to later learning for the infants. Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine is created by the thyroid gland that is in the throat. The two chemicals used to create T3 and T4 is tyrosine and iodine. Tyrosine is an amino acid that is…

    Words: 384 - Pages: 2
  • Musk Synthesis

    MuSK consists of fourteen exons and is found on chromosome 4 in mice and on chromosome 9 in humans. The structure of MuSK is divided between the extracellular region, transmembrane domain (TM), juxtamembrane domain (JM) and a catalytic domain. The extracellular region includes four immunoglobulin-like domains (Ig) and between the two last one a cysteine-rich domain (C6) represented in Figure 6B. Then it follows the TM, which is located in the membrane of the muscle fiber, the JM and the tyrosine…

    Words: 255 - Pages: 2
  • RET Synthesis

    The development of thyroid cancer arises from mutations in either receptor tyrosine kinases or effectors involved in those pathways. In particular, papillary carcinomas generally have alterations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK). For example, RET stands for "rearranged during transfection." RET is expressed in high amounts from the C cells in the thyroid, and the RET proto-oncogene is activated by fusion of the RET TK domain with the 5′ sequence of one of different…

    Words: 375 - Pages: 2
  • Nilotinib Case Studies

    bone marrow produces too many leucocytes (white blood cells) . This over production of leucocytes occurs when they grow uncontrollably by overcoming the cell regulation cycle. Cells not undergoing the regulation cycle continue to divide without dying ,causing an overcrowding of cells, hence, forming a tumour in bone marrow. The tumour can become an even more serious issue when the cancer cells from a tumour spreads to other tissues in the body(metastasis) (1). Novartis Oncology (a Novartis…

    Words: 1519 - Pages: 7
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