Toxicology testing

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    Aroclor 1242 Case

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    chemicals that did not even exist until 1976, the process that led to the 1983 NAS risk assessment paradigm. The fact that NCR had phased out Aroclor 1242 from its entire product line well before this timeframe demonstrates corporate responsibility during a period of rapidly expanding awareness concerning multifaceted hazards posed by environmental chemical pollution. 2. Hill Top Research Institute, Inc. (Hill Top) conducted dozens of toxicity studies for NCR to assess the potential toxicity of NCR’s CCP, its components, and a replacement for its Aroclor 1242 solvent. These tests, when considered collectively, demonstrated that CCP and its components had low to negligible toxicity. However, to show that NCR should have known from the testing program that PCBs were toxic to animals, Dr. Rodricks selectively discusses only the two studies that report liver effects. In fact, according to the pathologists reviewing the test results, the liver toxicity could not be attributed to the test material because of the lack of a dose-response relationship and the presence of a parasitic infection in the animals that confounded the results. Thus, contrary to Dr. Rodricks’s assertions, NCR had no scientifically credible reason to conclude that the potential toxicity of CCP and its components would likely result in risks at environmental levels of exposure. 3. Dr. Rodricks opines that NCR should have known of the risks from PCBs to human health and the environment from the time it…

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    Skin Peeling: A Case Study

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    (Office of Environmental Health Hazzard Assessment, 2015). Effects of Animal Exposure As previously stated animals and humans are both affected by phenol exposure. Animals have exhibited the same types of side effects as humans. Animals are exposed to phenol the same way as human exposure; via inhalation, oral, and direct contact. Through inhalation exposure animals have experienced the following: • pulmonary damage • myocardial injury • liver damage • renal damage • neurological effects…

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    Pesticides In Society

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    The use pesticides are widely used in our society today. People today use it to exterminate unwanted pests, such as rodents, insects and molds. There are initially three categories of pesticide substances: insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides—all of which specializes in the way it destroys certain pests. Insecticide fights against insects that “feed on crops, leaves, roots, and other parts of plants” (Naveen et al 125). This is the type of pesticide that may be used in most parks, gardens,…

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    used in many industries including mining and iron and steel production. Additionally, cyanide treats wastewater. According to Wu, F. et al. (2014), socio economics status would be a factor likely to increase exposure of foodborne toxicity because people with low-income consume only one or two foods. On the other hand, children under 18 years old are at high risk in toxicological effects of cyanide since they are immature and differ from adult (ATSDR, 2006). Cyanide compounds would be lethal…

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    Pb Contamination

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    Introduction Lead (Pb) contamination is a pervasive issue in many low-income neighborhoods throughout the United States. The toxicity of lead poses significant risks to human health, and proves to be especially harmful for children in terms of cognitive and physical development. Lead in the environment is primarily related to a legacy of anthropogenic sources including leaded gasoline, leaded paint, and various industrial applications. Although the presence of heavy metals is ubiquitous in the…

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    Is Lead Good Or Bad

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    disease and reproductive failure (in both men and women). Finally, lead poisoning disrupts a hormone in one’s body that is called the HPA axis, the body’s biggest stress system (“Dirty Dozen….” 2015). To top off all of the issues that lead poisoning brings, it may also add anxiety and depression. Studies have shown that over 494,000 people have died from lead poisoning and millions of others have to live with disabilities that came from lead poisoning. It is also shown that lead poisoning are…

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    The very fast death factor is a very potent weapon that has still not been addressed. We stand as the voice of the people and demand to add Anatoxin-a (C10H12NO) to the banned chemicals list. Anatoxin-a targets the nervous system thus making it virtually impossible to stop it since it targets the body in a matter of moments. One gram of this chemical can kill 350 people and unlike many other poisons this chemical works fast to kill. Even before the eventual death by respiratory paralysis that…

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    Lead Poisoning Essay

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    Lead. Why should we care? Lead, it surrounds and penetrates, it binds in water pipes and the walls of homes. With lead having been outlawed for several years now it still seems to be a real big problem in America. despite being aware of the problem many Americans and lawmakers seemed to have simply ignore the problem and pretend it wasn’t there. It wasn’t until early 2016 that the public took interest when the water in Flint, Michigan was laced with lead and soon there were reports…

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    Lead, or Pb2+, is a naturally occurring toxicant, which was used in lead-based paints. The impact of lead poisoning in adults is far less serious than it is on child exposed whilst still developing. Pb2+ has the ability to pass through the blood-brain barrier as well as through the placenta into a developing fetus. A pregnant woman exposed to small amounts of lead that may not harm her leads the way for long-term effects on the child’s learning and memory due to the blocking of NMDA receptors in…

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    Toxicity is the levels of chemical which causes harm to organism. A median level toxicity, LD50 is the levels of chemical required to kill half the population on organisms. LD50 metrics is used to define toxicity and any level beyond this measure is considered lethal causing acute toxicity and mortality. At No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) , there is no biologically or statically significant adverse effect of exposure on organism. The exposure level in minimum and the risk is…

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