# Probability density function

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Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) TERCOM is an algorithm that analyses the mean absolute distance by matching the distance between the map depth and the measured depth, as explained by (Carreno, 2010). With TERCOM, the measurements from a certain profile along the trajectory are processed in batch, but it may also be run recursively. The method indirectly assumes constant position offsets from the INS position each time it is started. Point Mass Filter (PMF) PMF is a calculation that determines the position probability density function (PDF), as said by (N. Bergman, 1999). The point mass filter estimator the priori position distributions together with the error models of the depth measurements and the map to produce a posteriori probability…

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Agents ' initial positions are at (0.20,2.20), (0.80,1.78), (0.70,1.35), (0.50,0.93), and (0.30,0.50) m. The sampling time in all simulations is chosen to be 1 s and the simulation is conducted for 180 s. A moving target inside the workspace characterizes time-varying risk density with The RL agents’ initial estimated states (2D positions in this case) are distributed randomly such that mean positions, e = 〖(e_1 ,…,e_5 )〗^T∈R^10 are at (0.20,2.20), (0.80,1.78), (0.70,1.35), (0.50,0.93),…

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two dimensional (2-D) training data for two classes, we created a classifier using discriminant function (which is the logarithmic version of Bayes formula) and used it to classify provided test data. We estimated the necessary statistical parameters, such as mean covariance and prior probabilities, from the training data set. We modeled two discriminant functions, which were further used on test data to discriminate between the two classes. We assumed that all the data are normally distributed.…

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------------------------------------------------- A life insurance company wants to estimate their annual payouts. Assume that the probability distribution of the lifetimes of the participants is approximately a normal distribution with a mean of 68 years and a standard deviation of 4 years. What proportion of the plan recipients would receive payments beyond age 74? Round your result to four significant places after the decimal. 4. ------------------------------------------------- The…

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However, this updating process may include probabilistic analysis of the project, probability of achieving cost and time objectives, prioritized list of quantified risks, and trends in quantitative risk analysis result (PMI, 2013, p. 341). To be specific, the probability outcomes would bring a general idea for both the PM and other stakeholders about the predicted outcome from risks status. What’s more, the prioritized list of quantified risks ranks risks by numerical analysis results, and from…

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Li (2000) introduced copula function approach in the aspect of evaluating credit derivatives, the copula function has gradually become the main approach in pricing CDO (Burtschell & George, 2005). In Li (2000) paper, a new random variable named ‘time-until-default’ was created to demonstrate survival time of each defaultable entity. And the copula function approach is based on this random variable to evaluate the default probability of financial instruments. Specifically, copula function specify…

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The lottery is played all around the world. More than two-thirds of the citizens of the state. Anny three digit number can be placed from 000 to 999. After than the randomly draw a number. A number is drawn at random and announced by the state. The winner gets a prize. The probability that the correct 3 digits in the right order is selected is at an odds of 1 in 1,000. So if If a ticket costs two dollars and the winner must pick a sequence of five digits then if There are 10^5=100,000 different…

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ISE SUMMER PROJECT 2015 Probability, randomness, and chance should be central in any STEM pedagogical model. The concepts of randomness and chance play a very significant role in the essence of all sciences, and especially in the empirical sciences. Randomness is a critical component of biological modeling at many levels in a wide range of systems. The fundamental axioms of the quantum paradigm in physics are, by definition, essentially stochastic. Economics uses the randomness in human thought…

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from this distribution. The exponential distribution is a probability distribution that describes the times between events; that is, a process in which events occur continuously and independently at a constant average rate. Having observed a sample of n data points from an unknown exponential distribution, a frequent task is to use these samples to make predictions about future data from the same source. The random variable X is said to be exponentially distributed if it has a density function:…

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New Balance is moving into a toning market with a pair of attractive shoes that has hidden balance technology. The purpose is to present, “Why walk when you can tone your body”, when you’re simply just walking or even doing your everyday chores. True Balance shoes promises 29% muscle activation and 10% calorie burn. Many women are getting intrigued with the idea of losing weight by these shoes from the percentages, but what if they percentages were lower. Would you still buy them? Even though,…

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