as numeracy. Age. Older individuals don’t understand risk information as well, both overestimate and underestimate probabilities (Fuller, Dudley, & Blacktop, 2001), worse risk comprehension than younger individuals (Fausset & Rogers, 2012). Much of the literature supports the idea that decision making effectiveness…
uncertainty. When an “outcome is the result of adding the outcomes of many separate performances, all in certain respects uniform”; in other words, when the frequency-ratio is known, then the experiment is named divisible, while a non-divisible or non-seriable experiment is one which “can be neither itself broken down into a number of uniform additive parts nor treated as part of a divisible experiment” (p. 8). In a non-divisible experiment the frequency-ratio standpoint has no actual sense. One…
"Struck by Lightning: the curious world of probabilities" is a book written in 2005 by Jeffrey S. Rosenthal, an award-winning Canadian statistician and author. Jeffrey S. Rosenthal graduated from Woburn Collegiate Institute in 1984, received his B.Sc. in mathematics, physics and computer science in Toronto in 1988. He later received his PhD in mathematics in Harvard University in 1992. He performs music and improv. comedy as well as being an author and supervisor of student projects. "Struck by…
Probability Warning, quit reading now if you don’t want to learn about how important probability and different parts of it are. Still reading? By the end of this paper you will be able to identify what probability is and what the different parts are, how they can be applied in the real world, and why it is important in a career. Independent Events what are they? When two events are independent of each other hints the name, this means is that one event has no effect on the other event. An example…
List the probability value for each possibility in the binomial experiment that was calculated in MINITAB with the probability of a success being ½. (Complete sentence not necessary) P(x=0) P(x=6) P(x=1) P(x=7) P(x=2) P(x=8) P(x=3) P(x=9) P(x=4) P(x=10) P(x=5) 4. Give the probability for the following based on the MINITAB calculations with the probability of a success being ½. (Complete sentence not necessary) P(x?1) P(x<0) P(x>1) P(x?4) P(4 5. Calculate the mean and standard…
ISE SUMMER PROJECT 2015 Probability, randomness, and chance should be central in any STEM pedagogical model. The concepts of randomness and chance play a very significant role in the essence of all sciences, and especially in the empirical sciences. Randomness is a critical component of biological modeling at many levels in a wide range of systems. The fundamental axioms of the quantum paradigm in physics are, by definition, essentially stochastic. Economics uses the randomness in human thought…
An example of this is ionospheric reflection and refraction: a fraction of any message sent from Earth to space can reflect back to Earth on the surface of the ionosphere, and then a small fraction of this signal can be reflected back to space on the planet’s surface, and so on. When receiver circuits read a multipath signal, the original message becomes distorted due to echoes and reverberation, and the data can suffer heavy losses. Signals can be divided into equal sized fractions of the…
Implementation of Bayesian Method for basic pattern Classification Abstract: This document describes an example of basic pattern classification using the Bayesian method. Based on given two dimensional (2-D) training data for two classes, we created a classifier using discriminant function (which is the logarithmic version of Bayes formula) and used it to classify provided test data. We estimated the necessary statistical parameters, such as mean covariance and prior probabilities, from…
Attribute reduction refers to the mapping of the original high-dimensional data onto a lower-dimensional space. For example for given a set of data points of n variables , we need to compute their lower dimensional representation .Criterion for feature reduction can be different based on different problem settings. In this paper we will test different ranking algorithms and will provide results so we can show how the Information Gain Ranking filter will outperform the other algorithms for…
In definition, probability refers to the measure of the likelihood of an event happening. The probability for any event occurring falls between 1 percent and 100 percent thus meaning that the interpreted meaning of a probability equals the subject meaning held of the probability (Grinstead et al, 1997). However, it is worth noting that the application of probability or assigning of probability to the events in the effort to gratifying the axioms of probability follows some rules or basics…