Opioid receptor

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    C0MPARING AND CONTRASTING OPIATE ANALGESICS, TRAMADOL AND MORPHINE BMS291 An opioid is defined as “A drug that contains opium, opium derivatives or synthetic drugs that have an opium-like effect.” (Harris, 2010) Morphine is a prototype opioid that is used to treat patients with moderate to severe pain usually associated with postoperative pain or neoplastic disease. (Tiziani, 2010) Morphine produces pharmacological actions such as pain relief, by acting on receptors located on neural cell membranes. (News Medical, 2015) Morphine simulates the actions of endorphins and enkephalins at opioid receptors, (Bryant & Knights, 2011) The capabilities of morphine span further than just the treatment of pain, it can be used to supress an unproductive…

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    is the tryptamine molecule that is primarily responsible for Iboga's effect. Ibogaine similar to serotonin, but with a methyl molecule where the hydroxy group would be, and a more complex toluene structure with an ethyl group coming off. Ibogaine acts on almost all receptors in the brain, but primarily the…

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    SUD: A Case Study

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    g. opioid assisted treatment iii) Relapse prevention through, blocking opioid actions, enhancing cognitive functions, impulse control and stress reduction, or controlling craving. 4.2. Buprenorphine 4.2.1 Physical Chemistry Buprenorphine (BUP) a semisynthetic alkaloid is a derivative of oripavine, and thebaine the parent compound for opioids. BUP is partially soluble in water, soluble in methanol and freely soluble in acetone with a Pkb (dissociation constant) of 8.5 rendering it a weak…

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    Pain Modulation Of Pain

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    Pain is modulated by descending mechanisms of nociceptive transmission between the brain and spinal cord. Multiple brain regions, pathways, and chemical mediators are involved in this modulation of pain. One type of powerful mediator involved in pain modulation are opioids. Endogenous opioid peptides, as well as exogenous opioid agonists, bind and activate opioid receptors. Activated opioid receptors directly inhibit ON cells and also inhibit GABAergic interneurons which inhibit OFF cells, thus…

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    Cannabinoid Analysis

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    As of now, two cannabinoids (marijuana), dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone (Cesamet), are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).1 According to an article about the use of cannabinoids and the treatment of chemotherapy side effects, cannabinoids are shown to have a significant neuro-modulatory function in decreasing CINV.1 CB1 cannabinoid receptors are present in the central nervous system, while recent evidence proposes that…

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    Opioids Research Paper

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    Opioids Definition and Classification 1. Definition It is important to distinguish between opium, opiate and opioid. According to Vallejo et al. (2011, page E343), opium is a natural extract from the opium poppy, whereas opiates and opioids are its derivatives. Natural alkaloids derived of opium are generally called opiates, whereas opioids (opium-like) can be either natural or synthetic. The most common known opioids are morphine, codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, oxycodone, etc. (Vallejo et al.,…

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    Morphine is an opioid where as Tramadol is not an opioid but still binds into the opioid receptor and produces the same effect as an opioid would, if medication is strengthened. Both tramadol (oral) and morphine (oral) are commonly used for pain management. While tramadol is used to treat moderate pain, morphine is used for moderate to severe nociceptive pain, such as pain due to surgery, trauma or cancer. Evidence suggests that tramadol can ease opioid withdrawal, therefore it cannot be abused…

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    Naloxone: A Case Study

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    Introduction Naloxone (also known as Narcan or Evzio) is an opioid antagonist that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for opioid overdoses since 1971; why are we hearing so much about it right now? Opioid overdoses and deaths continue to increase. In order to reduce these deaths, legislation is regularly being passed at the state level to get naloxone in the hands of the family and friends of those at risk for overdose. Currently, there are thirty-seven states with laws…

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    Cultivation Theory

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    American life, so much so its protection was included within the Bill of Rights. Not only is news media a means of transmitting information, it can strengthen a society, shape opinions, enrich one’s knowledge, and serves as a backbone of democracy by ensuring the public is apprised on topics of national concern. One such topic of concern within our society is the nation’s opioid epidemic. Lives are being lost at an alarming rate, state and local governments are scrambling to address the issue…

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    Narcotics are pain relieving drugs that work by receptors in the brain and dulling the sense of pain. Generally, is an opiate. The benefits are for use only the treatment of acute pain, cancer pain syndrome, chronic pain as low back pain, post-herpetic neuralgia. When is not malignant chronic pain was considered to be unresponsive to opioids, or the use of combination medicament with opioids. The narcotics as well their medical uses. The narcotics have effect as analgesic, sedation; and…

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