# Multiple comparisons

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design (Jackson, 2012, p. 286). A repeated measures ANOVA is an analysis of variance conducted on data where the participants are correlated either a within-subjects or matched-subjects design. The difference between a randomized ANOVA and a repeated measures ANOVA is the fundamental design of the research study analyzed. The term one-way means that the design uses only one independent variable. 4. If a researcher decides to use multiple comparisons in a study with three conditions, what is the probability of a Type I error across these comparisons? Use the Bonferroni adjustment to determine the suggested alpha level. Utilizing multiple comparisons in a study with three conditions, the probability of a Type I error increases, determined by the formula 1-(1-α)c. Using this formula, the current probability of a Type I error on at least one of the three conditions is 1-(1-.05)3= 1-(.95)3 = 1-.86 = .14. The Bonferroni adjustment formula α / k = .05 / 3 = .017. 6. When should post hoc comparisons be performed? According to Jackson (2012), a post hoc comparison is performed after the ANOVA. When the ANOVA indicates that at least one of the sample means differs significantly from the others, then we perform a Post hoc test. For example, we would use it when there are three or more groups that we want to compare. (Jackson, 2012) 8. Why is a repeated measures ANOVA statistically more powerful than a randomized ANOVA? A repeated-measures ANOVA analyzes data that removes or…

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This parallels why someone might excel in something and fail in something else, thus giving them different levels of intelligence in one subject over another. According to Basak Calik, author of the article “Multiple Intelligence Theory for Gifted Education: Criticisms and Implications”, “…people might have all types of intelligences to different degree rather than having a singular form of it as a distinction from the previous views of intelligence,” and that there are theories that support the…

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Autocorrelation is not expected to be an issue with the model, given that the it is not using time series data, and it can therefore be assumed that there is no autocorrelation present in the model. To make sure that there is no perfect collinearity present in the model, it is recommended to run a collinearity test of the model (see: Exhibit 1.1). If a variable generate a VIF (Variance Inflation Factors) value above 10.0, the model might have a collinearity problem and attempts to correct the…

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One individual difference factor that is often raised as a potential predictor of level of social comparison is self-esteem. However, the relation between self-esteem and social comparison appears to be rather complex. Wheeler and Miyake (1992) had 94 college students record the social comparisons they made for two weeks. They found that whether one makes upward or downward comparisons is dependent upon the target, but that having a negative mood before socially comparing oneself is more likely…

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What people ought to do is usually associated with what people have most reason to do. Reasoning is a characteristic feature of humans, an essential tool of thinking that enables people to learn the truth and to rationalize their understanding of the world. Most importantly, reason is the primary source of justification that explains human actions, beliefs and behaviours. By exercising rational reasoning, humans weight up their available alternatives and act according to the best possible…

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They share the same goal of redemption and equal inevitability of their failure. Dunya was the same objective to Svidrigailov as the superman theory to Raskolnikov. When either was faced with the failure of reaching their goal, they suffered a massive psychological breakdown. Their different perspectives on life drove them to choose different outcomes of their journeys. Svidrigailov would have rather died than spent life in prison. He was very egotistical and didn’t like to admit he was wrong,…

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They should just be accepted as is and not immediately subjected to past experiences that may have been “better” in comparison. Children are coached from a young age to compare their feelings and most prized possessions without any regard of the consequences it might have on their future. Joshua Becker, author of Becoming Minimalist: A Helpful Guide to Stop Comparing Yourself to Others, shares, “I’ve lived most of my life comparing myself to others. At first, it was school and sports. But as I…

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I believe comparison is like human nature because we as humans like to compete against each other and conform in order to "fit in" and at the same time be better than everyone else. I would compare my level of English and reading comprehension skills to others' because Chinese is my "first language." Though I learned English at the same time as Chinese, Chinese was the most dominant language spoken. And because of that, I have to work twice as hard and it will take me twice as longer to write…

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Perils of Social Networking Sections III, IV, and V Theodore Roosevelt declared, "Comparison is the thief of joy" (Militaryquotes, 2016). By passively looking at friends’ splendidly sophisticated lives on social networking services, individuals begin to study other’s online highlights. These highlights compared to the personal blooper memories rewound in their own heads can lead to self-loathing. Referencing social networking, Michael J. Bugeja, a professor of communications at Iowa State…

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there is no greater sacrifice and the situation could not get any worse for them to reflect on the possible worse outcomes. Additionally, Epictetus states “keep before your eyes day by day death and exile, and everything that seems terrible but most of all death; and then you will never have any abject thought, nor will you yearn for anything beyond measure.” (Cohen 61) This quotation really demonstrates how using a philosophical anecdote instead of awfulizing for a specific situation can cause…

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