Intracranial pressure

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    Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is a common and potentially life threatening condition arising from a variety of pathological conditions including traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracranial hemorrhage, disturbance of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) circulation and brain tumors. Although ventriculostomy continues to be the gold standard modality, the potential risks of misplacement, infection, hemorrhage and obstruction have led to development and implementation of alternative intracranial devices and techniques for monitoring ICP1. Recently, transorbital ultrasonography has gained popularity as it is a noninvasive bedside exam that has been shown to be useful for detecting raised ICP by evaluating the change in the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD)2-4.…

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    Intracranial Pressure

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    Physiology of intracranial pressure (ICP) 1. Intracranial pressure dynamics: Intracranial pressure is the pressure of cerbrospinal fluid inside the skull.Normally the cranial vault is a closed box and non compliant structure containing volume of approximately 1500 ml ,comprissing 88% brain matter ,7.5% blood and 4-5 % cerebrospinal fluid . Monrroe kelle hypothesis concludes that any increase in the volume of an intracranial element must be met with an equal compensatory decrease in…

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    Glaucoma, what is glaucoma? If you are like me, you think it has to do with the pressure in your head and that marijuana is the alternative drug that can make it better. I immediately think about the movie “How High” and see the little old lady sitting on her bed with a pipe saying that it helps with glaucoma too. But is any of this true? Yes and no. Glaucoma does not affect the pressure in your head known as intracranial pressure or ICP. What it does affect is the pressure that is put onto the…

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    Decompressive Craniectomy and the Return of Functionality in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure The brain and its surrounding protective bony layer provide for a unique situation with regards to traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Unlike other tissue in the body, which are free to expand outwards when inflammation or trauma occurs, the brain cannot. In the average adult, the cranial vault has the ability to accommodate for up to 1500mL of volume. When cerebral…

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    pain and fifteen percent of people will experience poor speech, vision and difficulty with movement much like symptoms post stroke. Symptoms are more dependent on the location of the AVM in the brain. AVM’s are not specific to one part of the brain. The final diagnosis is detected with either a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The cause of an AVM is unknown, they are not hereditary. Very rarely do AVM’s grow or change throughout a person’s…

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    Running head: INTRACRANIAL REGULATION 1 Intracranial Regulation Name Institution Introduction Cerebrospinal fluid is a colorless body fluid that is found in the brain and spinal cord. It is produced by the choroid plexuses of the ventricle of the brain. It protects the cortex of the brain providing many mechanical protections. Also, it provides immunological to the brain in the skull. The brain produces about…

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    Identify four late signs and symptoms of increased ICP. (2 points) 1) Decreasing level of consciousness leading to a comatose state (Hinkle & Cheever, 2014). 2) Decreased pulse rate, decreased respiratory rate, increased blood pressure and increased temperature (Hinkle & Cheever, 2014). 3) Cheyne-Stokes respirations (Hinkle & Cheever, 2014). 4) Loss of brain stem reflexes (Hinkle & Cheever, 2014). 8. List two medication classifications that the ICU nurse could use to control or reduce…

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    catheter as being tunneled under the scalp to prevent infection and dislodgement; it connected to an external drainage system that was lowered at least 20 cm below the patient’s head to create the needed pressure gradient for drainage. The physician ordered a CT scan which confirmed placement of the EVD. The drainage was monitored hourly for amount and characteristics; a focused neurologic exam was also performed at that time. The patient was kept in a supine position with head of bed flat; to…

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    Kofi Gyamfi Case Essay

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    Kofi Gyamfi: Make-up Assignment Cooper Madison, a 6-year-old Caucasian male, arrived at the emergency department at 1045 Tuesday with a closed head injury and concussion, related to a fall from a tree house. A CT scan indicated possible skull fracture and subdural hematoma. A C-spine ruled out spinal fracture. While still in the emergency department, Cooper experienced an unwitnessed seizure. At 1300 Tuesday, Cooper was admitted to the pediatric unit. He has showed signs of decreasing…

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    When Would You Administer Mannitol? Mannitol is a diuretic. It has many uses. It is most commonly used to increase urine production and flush the kidneys. It can, also, be used to decrease swelling and pressure inside the eye or around the brain. Another use is the elimination of toxic substances, such as aspirin, barbituates, bromides, and carbon monoxide from the body. First, mannitol can perform all of these functions because it is a diuretic. This means that the addition of it to…

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