Cerebrospinal fluid is a colorless body fluid that is found in the brain and spinal cord. It is produced by the choroid plexuses of the ventricle of the brain. It protects the cortex of the brain providing many mechanical protections. Also, it provides immunological to the brain in the skull. The brain produces about 500ml of cerebral spinal fluid which circulates and gets reabsorbed (Peterson et al, 2011). At any moment, only100-160ml is present. In a case of complete blockage of the flow of the cerebral spinal fluid, it leads to hydrocephalus and other malformations. …show more content…
Also, head injury can be grouped here. Head injury is mostly significant because it has serious complications. For example, head injury is one of the causes of hydrocephalus (Kim, 2011). In head injury, one may suffer hematoma which leads to increased intracranial pressure. Cerebral edema is a swelling of the brain because of the presence of excessive fluid. The mechanism of action of cerebral edema is breakage of blood brain barrier. The damage allows the fluid to accumulate in the extracellular space of the brain. The breach of a barrier is due either traumatic or non-traumatic causes. Some of the traumatic causes are brain trauma while non traumatic causes include cancer stroke or ischemic …show more content…
As we Hydrocephalus is the excessive accumulation of cerebral spinal fluid in the brain the clinical presentation of hydrocephalus is influenced by some factors which include age, duration and rapidity of onset. The excessive accumulation causes increased intracranial pressure. The increased intracranial pressure in return causes herniation. In childhood, the excessive accumulation can cause progressive enlargement of the head. The enlarged head in children can result in convulsions, mental disabilities, and tunnel vision. When hydrocephalus occurs in adults, the presentation is different. In adults it presents in the following way: the first sign there is cognitive deterioration.
Under this deterioration, people may confuse it with other forms of dementia. Another symptom is severe headaches and especially in the morning. It occurs in the morning because, in the recumbent position, absorption is less efficient. The causes of hydrocephalus can be acquired or congenital. The congenital causes are Spinal Bifida and Arnold-Chiari malformation. The acquired causes include hemorrhage, meningitis, tumors, cysts and head trauma (Cooper, 2011). The mechanisms in hydrocephalus are the blockage of the flow of the cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid