Trastuzumab is found to inhibit the Her2 expression ultimately inhibiting the malignant transformation of the cancer cells working at the DNA level preventing cancer cell growth and proliferation. At the same time, this is detrimental to the myocardium as ErbB2 signaling has a vital role of maintaining left ventricular function. This chemotherapy agent is believed to inhibit the ErbB2 for Her2-positive breast cancer tumors while also inhibiting the cardiac signaling ultimately leading to heart disease. This study found the incidence of left-ventricular dysfunction is 3% to 18% with a rate of heart failure at 2% to 4.1%. Doxorubicin is believed to promote hypotension, dilated cardio dilation, tachycardia, and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. It was recommended in this single group design trastuzumab and doxorubicin study that further research is needed in this area along…
Heart failure (HF) is a complex and progressive clinical syndrome that can result from any structural abnormality or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood.1 The term “heart failure” is preferred over “congestive heart failure” because some patients may show no signs or symptoms of volume overload.1 An estimated 5.1 million Americans >20 yrs of age have HF based on NHANES 2007-2010 data.2 By 2030, projection show that the prevalence of HF will increase 25% from…
history. The patient did not have any known diseases and the doctors following her case had ran multiple diagnostic test that did not show any evidence toward a diagnosis. Her illness did not appear to be bacterial or viral. Within the first hour of my clinical day, I was able to observe an echocardiography on the patient I followed. The echocardiography technician who performed the test, was kind enough to explain the images on the screen and what exactly he was looking for to take a picture…
shows poor prognosis. Serum levels of N-terminal (NT) pro-BNP which is precursor of BNP will be elevated also. NT pro BNP rises with age, a level below 300 pg/ml will not be considered for heart failure. A value above 450 pg/mL is positive for a patient under 50; above 900 pg/mL for patients under 75 and above 1800 pg/mL for patients over 75 yearls of age ( Parillo & Dellinger, 2014). The two types of heart failure: systolic and diastolic failure depends on the contractility and…
In preparation for fractions number talk what I observed was very beneficial for students at the carpet it allowed students to discuss and share with one another. I liked the fact that after a student share students had to give a particular cue saying if they agreed with peer. I thought that was awesome. I also like how she went over what to expect during learning at table and how students will share. So some type of feedback was to be expected even if student did not still quite understand. As…
Fractions Fractions are difficult to learn and to teach, however they form an important part of primary education mathematics. Fractions both underpin the development of proportional reasoning, including the understanding of algebra and probability. Much of the confusion of teaching and learning fractions appear to be from the many different coding conventions (6/5, 1 1/4, 1.25, 125%), different representations (models) and interpretations (constructs) (Clarke, Roche & Mitchell, 2008). The…
disadvantages. Four classic manipulatives used in today’s classrooms are: fraction strips, base ten blocks, counters, and pattern blocks. Fraction strips are a manipulative designed to represent and compare fractions. They are rectangular pieces of plastic, foam, or paper which represent different parts of a whole. They are various sizes and colors based on their denominators, and can be used to help students visualize explore the concepts of fraction equivalency, adding and subtracting…
For this curriculum study, I chose third grade mathematics as my unit of study. As far as my objectives go, I would want my students to walk away from this particular section of fractions with the understanding of what a fraction is, the difference between the components of a fraction such as the numerator and denominator, knowing how to identify how many parts of a whole are shaded in, and knowing how to simplify a fraction. As far as my instructional method, I created an original prezi, which…
As you begin to insert your responses to the prompts found in this document, please be sure to save it frequently, (and note the location of the file) so as to not lose any of your work. Once completed, you will submit this document to WGU for grading. Instruct What student misconceptions have you encountered related to fraction, decimal, and percentage concepts? How do you help students understand the notion of equivalence among fractions or prepare them for this understanding? One…
Students learn fractions much earlier than the average person expects. In today’s American education system, children are officially introduced to fractions in first grade. Children use fractions frequently in everyday life and in academics too. A website called, “Math Warehouse Lesson Plans,” provides a lesson plan about teaching fractions to first graders. This lesson plan can easily relate to an article written by the National Counsel of Teachers called, “Common Core brief: The fraction…