Heart Failure (HF): A Complex And Congestive Heart Failure

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Heart failure (HF) is a complex and progressive clinical syndrome that can result from any structural abnormality or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood.1 The term “heart failure” is preferred over “congestive heart failure” because some patients may show no signs or symptoms of volume overload.1

An estimated 5.1 million Americans >20 yrs of age have HF based on NHANES 2007-2010 data.2 By 2030, projection show that the prevalence of HF will increase 25% from 2013 estimates2. It is estimated that by year 2030, the total cost of HF will increase almost 120% to $70 billion from the 2013 estimated total cost of $32 billion.2 HF incidence increases with age, rising from approximately 20 per 1000 individuals 65 to 69 years of age to >80 per 1000 individuals 65 to 69 years of age.1 Blacks have
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Social support would buffer stress, promote treatment adherence and healthy lifestyle. Restricting sodium is commonly recommended in HF. Sodium intake is related to hypertension, LV hypertrophy, and CV disease. The AHA recommends restricting sodium for patients in stage A and B HF to 1500mg/day and <3g/day for patients with stage C and D.1 Patients with HF with a BMI between 30 to 35 kg/m2 have lower mortality and hospitalization rates than those with a BMI in the normal range. Obese patients may have worse outcomes. Exercise training is recommended as safe and effective for HF patients who are able to participate to improve functional status. Cardiac rehabilitation has shown to reduce mortality, reduces hospitalizations, improves functional capacity, and improve Health-Related Quality of Life

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