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    universities in Munich to partake in the study; they were required to pass a telephone screening that assessed their general health. Participants were native Germen speakers with no history of sleep, psychiatric, and/or neurological disorders; in addition, they were right-handed nonsmokers that were not medical or psychology students. As preparation for the experiment, each subject went through an anatomical scan to reveal any neurological disorders then they were randomized into the control group with normal sleep schedule or the experimental group, who were instructed to subtract four hours of sleep from their normal schedule; volunteers had to refrain from consuming caffeine and alcohol to eliminate a possible confounding variable. To address another possible confounding factor, questionnaires were administered to evaluate current sleep schedules and personality. This screening took five days before the actual test day. The experiment was performed in a magnetic resonance scanner. A partial reinforcement schedule was used for the discriminatory fear-conditioning. Participants were repeatedly presented either a yellow or blue square. A delayed mild electric shock would be administered after a specific color appeared in 33% of the trials in order to condition the volunteer to one of the colors. Researchers recorded various aspect of their subjects. To measure and analysis sleep, Actigraphy was obtained by an ActiSleep monitor on the five nights prior to the test date…

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    The individuals within the groups were matched together by 1 year of age and within 2 social classifications of each other (i.e. high, high-medium, medium, medium-low, and low social class). According to the article, the individuals “on the healthy and psychiatric control groups were assigned an index age corresponding to the [onset age of Bulimia Nervosa] case to which they were matched” (Gonçlaves, Machado, Martins, P.P. Machado, 2014, p. 64). The “age of index” refers to the time in the…

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    Obey At Any Cost Analysis

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    its head the shocking will continue. Then twenty four hours later they were put in a shuttle box where there are two sides when light appears on the floor there is an electric current going through so the dog will only have to jump over the barrier to the other side to escape the shocks. The no harness were successful of doing do but the escape group were more successful because of their past experiences, the no escape group just stood there because they were taught to be helpless proving…

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    Point-Based Estimate

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    came from these villages, they may have been selected based on exposure. There may be slight selection bias if villages were more likely to use biomass fuels. May underestimate the association between biomass fuels and Tb, as both controls and cases would have the same exposure. However, in case-control studies, selection bias occurs when controls do not represent the population which gave rise to cases.2 Therefore, in this case, as cases and controls came from the same village, selection…

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    time of crisis (p. 194). To support his claim, Colaresi compares rally effect in France pre-and-post-1978, the United States pre-and-post1974 and the United Kingdom pre-and-post-1979. While the evidence supports Colaresi’s theory, he is forgetting, or avoiding, two major confounding variables in his analysis. For example, in the United States, 1974 was the year Watergate occurred. Throughout the Watergate Scandal Richard Nixon’s approval rating plummeted, and at its conclusion, his approval…

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    Pesticide Peer Review

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    the larger discussion of the effect of pesticides on neurological development of children. These results of this study are significant, even when considering the various confounding factors present with population based case-control studies. Causation was not proven but the results do make a case for further research considering the health outcome associated with exposure. Critique: The journal of Environmental Health Perspectives is a peer review journal that has been in publication since…

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    concludes that economics and history is the factor of polarization. These two ideas seem to be the two main arguments for polarization, is it people being more informed (media fragmentation) or the system causing people to be more polarized such as income inequality. This causes conflict between authors but also may show insight on how there can be many different insights on polarization depending on the background of that given person. These two authors reveal a new perspective on the idea of…

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    Nicholas Christakis explains, in his TedTalk presentation, how we are all embedded in a vast social network and how in these networks certain habits and ideologies can spread from person to person. Christakis goes on to ask how these social networks are developed and created. Through his research in obesity social network spreading, he breaks down the causes of these similarities and clustering to induction, homophily, and confounding. In this paper i will discuss how induction, homophily, and…

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    Ever since Pope Francis made his reveal in major cities in the U.S. a lot of criticism has arisen surrounding his actions in the air of this “holy” experience for any of those who attended. The topic Pope Francis intermixed with same-sex marriage and the now overly-publicized clerk, Kim Davis has led to some lost hope in the Pope’s sense of tolerance and hope for change despite his devotion to the church and the values it holds. Kim Davis is a now well-known, not in the best terms, for her…

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    Gatorade Correlation

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    the other hand, the average for the our experiment group, the subjects give gatorade, is 30.524 or an 84.78 percent accuracy. The results slightly improved for the experiment, but it is highly unlikely that this is due to the actual gatorade consumption. I believe other confounding variables affected our data. Firstly, we tested our experiment group before lunch on Friday the 15th and we collected data for our control on Thursday the 14th after school. A confounding variable in our experiment…

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