which is a mix of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion.
Chlorine gas is compressed into its liquid form. When added to water it hydrolyszes to form hypochlorous acid.
Cl2 (g) + H2O(l) ⇋ HOCl(aq) +H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
The hypochlorous acid is weak and partially ionizes in water to form hydronium and hypochlorite ions.
HOCl(aq) + H2O(l) ⇋ +H3O+(aq) + OCl-(aq)
The hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions are reffered to as “free chlorine” The hypochlorous acid has no electrical charge, while the hypochlorite ion has a negative charge. This makes the hypochlorous acid the stronger disinfectant. This is a major advantage as many germ surfaces carry a neutral negative charge surface. This causes the hypochlorite ions to repel from the germ surfaces , while the hypochlorous acid penetrates the surface. When the acid enters the germ it pierces the barrier of the germ slime coating and destroys the micro-organisms containing the diseases.
Sometimes instead of using elemental chlorine other products containing chlorine such as sodium hypochlorite (bleaches) or chloramines are used.
Sodium Hypochlorite is bleach that can be produced in two ways:
o When chlorine gas is dissolved in sodium hydroxide, which produces sodium hypochlorite water and salt.
Cl2 + 2NaOH + → NaOCl + NaCl + H2O
o By dissolving salt in softened water, which produces, brine. This solution is then electrolyzed and forms sodium hypochlorite solution.
When the hypochlorite is added to the water…
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the product that is produced from sodium hypochlorite oxidizing 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol and this experiment is to also determine if sodium hypochlorite is a selective oxidizing agent. This reaction is an oxidation reaction. The reaction involves the removal hydrogens and sometimes the addition of oxygen. 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol will undergo an oxidation reaction to produce an unknown product (Scheme 1).
soup” green when it was fully reacted with the two reactants.
Part III started with reaction eleven that created bubbles, smoke, and it was fizzing while turning completely white when it reacted. The solid, when dissolved, also created an evolution of foaming gas. The physical observations of reaction twelve where it started to bubbled like a soda, started to fizz and the solution was clear. Then, in reaction thirteen, it turned into a white and foamy substance that kind of looked like milk and…
The Calorimetric Determination of Enthalpy and Entropy Changes of the Thermal Decomposition of Sodium Sulphate Decahydrate
Sodium sulphate decahydrate thermally decomposes to anhydrous sodium sulphate at 50⁰ C and cools to form anhydrous sodium sulphate. Using Hess's Law the enthalpy and entropy changes of this process can be determined in order to deduce the spontaneity of the reaction. The transition temperature was determined by melting the hydrated crystals at 50⁰ C and allowing…
allowed both size and composition analysis. The system for the introduction of particles was made in a way to produce particles with the same charge. The skimmers were used to separate particles based on their velocity. The system was very complex because each of the parts worked at different pressure. In order to determine the velocity of particles, they were irradiated by two lasers on their way, and the velocity was calculated from the known distance and determined time. The size of particles…
Most people who watch crime dramas (Law & Order, NCIS, or CSI) on TV know what the cops do when they’re at a crime scene. When cops are investigating a crime scene, they spray a special type of solution involving the chemical Luminol that glows blue in the dark. The topic of this experiment is to determine what other liquids can react with Luminol to make the solution glow blue in the dark. The independent variable would be the types of chemicals used (in cups) and the dependent variable would…
The results obtained were statistically analyzed using the Fishers exact test.
Table 1: Comparison of microbial growth between different groups
Sodium Hypochloride Total Fishers exact test
Endovac Laser Control p-value
No Growth 5(50.0%) 8(80.0%) 0 15(37.5%) <0.001*
<103 5(50.0%) 2(20.0%) 0 7(17.5%)
103 – 108 0 0 0 8(20.0%)
>108 0 0 10(100.0%) 10(25.0%)
Total 10 10 10 40(100.0%)
*p<0.05 statistically significant
p>0.05 non significant, NS
Amongst the 10…
that demonstrated how renal system responses and reacts when subjects consuming different types of fluids. Respective fluid volumes are based on each subject’s body mass. Based on each subject’s body mass, after converted from pounds to kilograms, every subjects has different volume and fluids for ingestion. For the control subject, she ingested no fluid throughout entire lab which represented the conditions of normal fluid. For the hypotonic subjects, she ingested 854mL of water within 10…
“With increasing degree of calcification, the concentration of NaOH increases. The relationship between the concentration of NaOH and the factors in the calcified red mud liquor is given by three Equations (16–18):
N_NaOH=1.29(N_1 m_1-N_2 (m_2-N_NaOH/1.29) (16)
m2 = m1+m1N3 (17)
r = 1000/m2 …
liquid form. This is a physical change because its actual material that it consisted didn’t change, meaning, it’s still sugar, but in liquid form. Mixing solid copper sulphate with water is a physical change because a new substance was never formed and the copper sulphate is still copper sulphate, but in a different state. Plus the fact that the final product turned into a mixture (solution), which is another sign of a physical change. The changes I examined that were chemical in my experiment…