Penicillium

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    Mucor Hiemalis

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    concentration of (Mn, Cu, Fe) showed variable sensitivity in growth rate (Table 39, Fig. 49), it was noticed that high concentrations (500 ppm and 1000 ppm) delayed the growth up to 5 days whereas the fungus treated with 500 ppm start to grow at the day 6 and those treated with 1000 ppm start to grow at the 7 day but very slowly growth. P. duclauxii recorded high resistance against different concentrations of (Zn, Pb, Ni, Al) up to 1000 ppm (Table 39, Fig. 49). High concentration 1000 ppm of (Mn, Zn, Ni, Al) couldn’t stopped Penicillium italicum growth (Table 40, Fig. 50). The fungus pigmentation was low or not detected comparing with that of control with different concentration of Zn (Fig. 51). Microscopical examination of this fungus fed with different concentrations of zinc investigated variable sporulation comparing with that of control (Fig. 52). Copper slightly stimulated the growth in concentrations 30 ppm-100 ppm while other concentrations inhibited Penicillium italicum growth and 1000 ppm delayed the fungus growth to 6th day but with a slowly rate (Table 40, Fig.…

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    research on Penicillium until 1938 when he viewed Fleming’s paper on the mold. Alongside Florey was Doctor Ernst Chain who fought with Florey on who deserved credit for this new drug. During the summer of 1940, Chain and Florey began experiments on fifty mice infected with streptococcus. In this experiment, twenty-five mice were given penicillin and the other twenty-five did not. The results of the experiment showed that the mice given penicillin were cured and the others died a slow, painful…

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    Mutations of Penicillium notatum When Introduced to Ultraviolet Radiation in Different Environments Introduction DNA is composed of two strands composed of polynucleotides arranged in a double helix formation composed of four nucleotide subunits: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Each base must form a hydrogen bond with its respective compatible base, therefore adenine always bonds with thymine and guanine always bonds with cytosine. DNA is used to…

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    The Varroa Destructor

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    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman, 2000) is an obligatory ectoparasite of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L). It caused severe damage to populations of this species world-wide in recent years (Le Conte et al., 2010). The direct negative effect of the Varroa on honeybee has well documented (Weinberg and Madel, 1985; Daly et al., 1988, Wienands and Madel, 1988; Marcangeli et al., 1992; Bowen-Walker and Gunn, 2001; Contzen et al., 2004; Yang and Cox-Foster, 2005; Belaïd and Doumandji, 2010;…

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    in the U.S, and the effects of over using. Transition: I will begin by giving some background on antibiotics. II. Body 1. First Main Point the uses of antibiotics started in the 1940s. 2. Sub point: In the late 19th century, scientist by the name of Luis Pasteur and Robert Koch are responsible for confirming the main causes of human illness came from germs or bacteria 3. Sub point: According to In Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, it says, “The biggest advance in the field of antibiotics…

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    Penicillin was one of the first antibiotics created and used on the population. Sir Alexander Fleming changed the world of medicine not only in his days but also in present-day society. Penicillin was one of the greatest discoveries of the twentieth century, as antibiotics are one of the highest prescribed drugs in the world today. Penicillin is responsible for preventing the spread of infectious disease, and for improving military medicine. While revolutionizing the study of medicine,…

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    London in 1948. While working on an influenza virus in 1928, he observed that a sample of mold had accidently developed on the culture plate containing staphylococcus. Taking a closer look, he noted that the mold sample had created a bacteria-free circle surrounding itself. He further experimented and found that the mold culture he had discovered prevented the staphylococcus from growing. He named this active substance penicillin and wrote numerous papers revolving around bacteriology,…

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    Penicillin Research Paper

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    Penicillin is a widely used antibiotic, favored for its effectiveness for multiple bacterial infections while keeping human cells healthy and abundance. It wasn’t always this way, penicillin needed an entire lab team to discover how to purify and produce enough to cure infections. First, it needed to be discovered. The man who did that was Dr. Alexander Fleming, a bacteriologist at St. Mary’s hospital. He had returned to his lab to find that his improperly cleaned lab station had the mold…

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    One of the most well known bacterial diseases is strep throat, which is caused by the streptococcal bacteria. To cure strep, most doctors would prescribe antibiotics. However, without the discovery of penicillin, strep would still be a very dangerous infection. Penicillin is an antibiotic from the mold penicillium notam, and works by indirectly breaking down a bacteria’s cell walls. The drug prevents a protein from repairing holes in the wall, and by osmosis, water rushes in and the bacteria…

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    What Is Penicillin?

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    Although its discovery was an accident, Penicillin was one of the earliest discovered antibiotic agents. Penicillin was originally noticed in 1896, it was then re-discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming ,with the help from two other scientists. The question this odd discovery leaves the world wondering; how was this a accident? It all started one day in September of 1928 when, former bacteriologist Alexander Fleming went on vacation, his laboratory was not very clean or orderly. While away a…

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