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    Normalizing the Function of Autistic Children Wei Chi Chang Arizona State University Normalizing the Function of Autistic Children Despite the fact that Lovaas (1987) claimed that the result indicated early intensive behavioral therapy would be efficient and beneficial, Schopler, Short, and Mesibov (1989) criticized the study by pointing out three major flaws— subject selection bias, adequacy of the control group, and inappropriate outcome measures. The subject selection bias was targeting two main criteria issues that could influence the external validity of the study. First of all, the subjects were not “average (or below average)” as Lovaas (1987) described. There were several selection bias that could lead to obtaining higher functioning autistic children. For instance, by using the prorated mental age (PMA) to determine their intellectual functioning made the data appeared to be lower than the ratio IQ (i.e. used by a lot of other studies) (Schopler et al., 1989). There was no explanation for why the research chose to use PMA. However, after translating the PMA back to ratio IQ, the subjects in Lovaas (1987) actually needed a ratio IQ of 37 or higher to be included. Comparing to other epidemiological study, Lovaas (1987) had a relatively higher mean of IQ ratio of 63. In addition, 90% of the subjects’ IQ tests used prior to the treatment tend to reflect lower scores for autistic children. On the other hand, the study only used autistic children who were…

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    Oxfam

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    Oxfam is an “international confederation”, which is comprise of 17 member organizations, including Great Britain and Hong Kong .These organizations also work together with partners and local communities in more than 90 countries. Oxfam is committed to make a world without poverty and it emphasizes the power of people, through practical, innovative ways to help to alleviate poverty and injustices. The initial concern of Oxfam was simply food provision to relieve famine, and over the years it…

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    shown that there have been more death sentences and executions if the victims were white (Amnesty International, 2015). Additionally, 55.8% of death row inmates are white while 41.9% are black, however of the 155 exonerations to date 47.7% are white while 52.2% are black; and • police misconduct. The absolute error of death cannot be corrected, however a life sentence can be overturned. One major argument against the death penalty was the gruesomeness of the hangings, so in an attempt to make…

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    items to the mass market and have competed against similar firms on the basis of pricing and quality. However, in striving to innovate, Arts Spot acts to differentiate itself with other firms and offering goods and services that are unique including a shift towards new technologies, so in this sense could quite possibly resemble the technical textiles firms who produce heterogeneous goods. The Degree to Which Tariffs Were Reduced Until the 1980s many Australian industries relied on a high rate…

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    penalty is necessary. Those who agree with the death penalty believe that putting a criminal who committed a capital crime brings justice to the case. The United States should abolish capital punishment, because it violates human rights, it is highly expensive, and it has systematic problems. The death penalty should be abolished because it violates human rights. Human rights are the rights that every human has. The death penalty doesn’t give an inmate a choice. They are killed depending on…

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    What is Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? It is defined as, ‘The value of a country’s overall output of goods and services at market prices, excluding net income from abroad.’ There are three ways it can be estimated, expenditure basis-the amount of money spent, output basis-the amount of goods and services sold, and income basis-the amount of money earned. The estimates are published on a quarterly basis. (GDP 2016) The most common way the gross domestic product is expressed, as a comparison to…

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    Global governance is the idea that every country should be so politically integrated that the rules binding them especially in terms of international trade relations and globalisation is barrier free. In my opinion, this is a phenomenon that has been attempted multiple time with little success rate or complete benefit for every individual member state. It has been tried globally with organizations like the WTO, it has been tried with countries within the same geographical location like ECOWAS or…

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    has done a remarkable job. Student mobility, as one of the components of the internationalization process, places the United States prevails as the top destination for international students, especially from East Asian students. Each year, the number of students from East Asian countries keeps rising (Institute of International Education, 2015), for this reason, I decided to conduct a qualitative research study to understand the reasons that motivate international students from East Asia to…

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    resources are workforce practices. As globalization permeates every aspect of our lives, managers have to learn to master the irony of global scale vs. local responsiveness to design human resource practices that leverage across boundaries and adapt to local conditions and to manage talent worldwide and within countries” (Caliguiri, 2010). Challenges: Similarly, managing in global environment is not an easy task. Most of the time, managing international projects require special skills. The…

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    Introduction These years, international trade has a huge development in whole society. The definition of international trade is the voluntary exchange of goods or services between organizations and countries (Grimwade, N. 2000). It covered import trade and export trade, and it can be seen as foreign trade as a nation’s angle of view, and it come from social productive forces and state formation. Besides, international trade is very important and necessary to a country’s development. For example,…

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