Ionization energy

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    Organic Chemistry

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    This semester, I’m in a course entitled Principles of Chemistry I. Currently, I need to learn and store trends of the periodic table. One particularly hard area is electron affinity and ionization energy trends. Electron affinity is how willing an element is to gain an electron, and ionization energy is how willing the element is to lose an electron. Remembering which direction each of those two trends go on the periodic table has been difficult for me. I’m trying to store this information in my long-term memory because it’s information I’ll need in the future. Next semester I am taking Principles of Chemistry II, and the year after I will be in Organic Chemistry. Chemistry is a topic that continually builds on its basic concepts, so this is…

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    cation and anion. Cation is a positively charged ion whereas Anion is a negatively charged ion. First ionisation energy- The first ionisation energy is the energy to remove electrons that are unstable from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to gain 1 mole of gaseous ions with a positively charge (1+) As you go down a group, the energy decreases from the top to the bottom due to the shielding effect. When there are a lot of electrons shielding the outer electron shell from the nucleus, energy is less…

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    Critical assessment of the article: Quantitative analysis by Auger Electron Spectroscopy 1 Introduction When the outer electron fills the vacancy left by an ionized electron in the inner shell, the released energy can be passed to another outer electron that causes further emitting of an electron with characteristic energy, this is the basic principle of the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) [1]. Nowadays, AES is almost an indispensable tool in nanoscience research for its high surface…

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    into deep space to explore unknown feature of the universe, the environment outside the earth is a big uncertainty with factors that we can’t fully understand yet. Besides the cost and the time we spend during long space travel, stay in the cold, vacuum universe would let astronauts experience different kind of radiation. These radiation may be some ionized particles as electromagnetic waves traveling with high speed and energy. They could come from nearby stars or even from those that are…

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    Ciminelli and Osseo-Asare, 1995; Lowson, 1982). Anderson (1951) reported 26 kJ/mol in the study of oxidation kinetics of galena (PbS) while Stenhouse and Armstrong (1952) reported an activation energy of 20 kJ/mol for the alkaline oxidation of pyrite. Koslides and Ciminelli (1992) suggested that during alkaline oxidation of sulphides, there is a change from chemical (activation energy > 40 kJ/mol) to diffusion (activation energy < 40 kJ/mol) control as the rate determining step when…

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    can be optimized to absorb light for a certain desired wavelength(or range of wavelengths) in the depletion layer. Hence depending on the range of the wavelengths set, the incident photon will initiate a Geiger discharge if it only falls within the limits. This is the principle used in fabrication of Near Ultaviolet(NUV) or Visible light (RGB) SiPMs. Probability of Geiger discharge Once the charge carrier generated by the incident photon is injected into the avalanche region, it gains…

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    How Does Temperature (thermal kinetic energy) Affect the Phases of Matter? Observation Can matter be in anything that elements can mix to something different? Why does matter have to have more than 2 elements? What things do not have matter? Why does matter have to have more of, weight, volume or density? Why is there such things called matter? Why is the earth made of matter? How much does matter influence the earth and what it does to help? What is matter? How does…

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    Thermal Equilibrium Essay

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    Experiment to determine the specific latent heat of vaporization for water. Electric power supply = 2 kW. Time taken = 5 minutes. Initial reading of the electronic balance = 685 g Final reading of the electronic balance = 565 g Mass of water vaporized, m = ………… Energy supplied by the heater, Q = Pt = ……….. Specific latent heat of vaporization: 11. Applications of Specific Latent Heat • Drinks can be cooled by adding in several cubes of ice. When ice melts a large amount of heat is absorbed and…

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    because the “wall” defines the amount of potential energy that each runner has by limitation of energy available to perform. In other words, the higher the potential energy, the less likely a runner will become fatigued and the more likely a runner will overcome the “wall.”…

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    ingestion range that permits researchers to decide the organization of the planet 's climate. Since the electrons of various iotas so firmly orchestrated in strong substances impact each other, the range of a strong is not quite the same as that of the substance 's gas state, where the electron course of action of individual particles or atoms is not meddled with by neighboring iotas or atoms. Typically, accordingly, substances are distinguished by their gas stage range. A plot of the…

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