Cation And Anion Research Paper

589 Words 3 Pages
Ion is a group of atoms which they behave on an electrical charge; there are two types of ions; cation and anion. Cation is a positively charged ion whereas Anion is a negatively charged ion.
First ionisation energy- The first ionisation energy is the energy to remove electrons that are unstable from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to gain 1 mole of gaseous ions with a positively charge (1+)
As you go down a group, the energy decreases from the top to the bottom due to the shielding effect. When there are a lot of electrons shielding the outer electron shell from the nucleus, energy is less needed to expel an electron from an atom. Fluorine has the most ionization energy and Caesium with the least.
As you go across a period, energy is increased along the periods.
Ionic radius– Ionic radius is the measurement of distance between the nucleus and electron in the outer shell. When an electron is lost from an atom it can form to a cation, the lost electron will no longer be a part of defending the other electrons from the charge of the nucleus.
As you go drown a group, the ionic radius gets bigger. This due to the fact extra layers of electrons are being added each time, the ions are bond to increase.
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The energy been released is based on how strong the attraction is between the electron and nucleus.
As you go down a group, first electron affinities lessen this is because when a negative ion is formed, the energy is released is less.
As you go across a period, energy is increased along the periods.
Electro-negativity– Electro-negativity is the measurement of the affinity of an atom to draw electrons itself. Fluorine being the most electronegative element has a value of 4.0.
As you go down the groups, electro negativity decreases in both group 1 and 7. Starting with Lithium in group 1 and Fluorine in group 7 electro negativity it’s high but then as you go down, it decreases and this is due to the bonding pair of electrons distance between the attractions of the nucleus.
As you go across a period, in the nucleus the positively charged protons attract the negatively charged electrons. Electro negativity increases from left to right in the periodic table when the proton in the nucleus increases.
Melting point – Melting point is the amount of energy needed when an element or compound temperature at a solid form changes into a liquid

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