# Internal energy

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The goal of this experiment is to understand the theory behind bomb calorimetry and use it to determine the enthalpy of combustion of naphthalene. First, the bomb calorimeter was standardized using benzoic acid and the average heat capacity of the bomb calorimeter was calculated to be 10.60.3205 kJ/K. From that, the average m, and f were found to be -526615.66kJ/mol, with a percent difference of 3.31%, -52600.0015kJ/mol with a percent difference of 1.99%, and -185.50.0013kJ/mol with a percent difference of 129.9%, respectively. Overall, the experiment showed that heats of combustions of substances can be determined via bomb calorimetry. Introduction The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved.1 Using that law it can be said that the change in the internal energy of a system () depends on the heat added (q) to the system and the work (w) done by the system.1 Equation 1 illustrates the relationship between the three variables.…

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is the most widely consumed drink (other than water) on a global scale (Jacobs, 2014). Generally served just below 100 degrees Celsius, issues such as heat transfer limit the appreciation of the beverage. The thermal energy in tea is defined by the movement or kinetic energy of the particles within the tea, hence, a decrease in the movement of the particles reduces the temperature. The thermal energy in the tea is lowered via means of energy transfer through convection, conduction, radiation…

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to account for the total decrease in the temperature of the water due to a loss of heat energy to the surrounding environment. The difference between the highest and lowest temperature values will then be used to calculate the total change in…

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How Does Temperature (thermal kinetic energy) Affect the Phases of Matter? Observation Can matter be in anything that elements can mix to something different? Why does matter have to have more than 2 elements? What things do not have matter? Why does matter have to have more of, weight, volume or density? Why is there such things called matter? Why is the earth made of matter? How much does matter influence the earth and what it does to help? What is matter? How does…

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Name: Sebastian Sak Lab Partners: Tim Gronet TA: Feifei Xu Determining Molar Enthalpy of Dehydration of Sodium Acetate Trihydrate Purpose: In this lab, two solid substances, sodium acetate and sodium acetate trihydrate, will be analyzed for the heat of solution for both processes. This allowed the calculation of the molar enthalpy of dehydration of sodium acetate trihydrate. Calorimetry was used to experimentally determine the heat of solution for both reactions. Procedure: This lab was…

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that the temperature decreased from its initial temperature. The observation may be due to the fact that, as the reaction proceeded, the dissolution of the solid must absorb energy from the water lowering its temperature. The calculation of the dissolution per mole was 21.919Kj/mole and the theoretical dissolution per mole is 28.100Kj/mole which yielded a percent error of 21.996%. Any error in this part may be due to not carefully reading the thermometer to the tenth place (0.1℃). Part III of…

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Chemical reactions can be categorized based on the release or absorption of energy. For instance, chemical reactions that release energy are known as exothermic reactions and have a positive change in enthalpy. Moreover, chemical reactions that absorb energy are endothermic, which have a negative change in enthalpy. Since the energy released is usually heat, keeping track of the heat flow in reactions will help determine the change in enthalpy of a reaction. Observing the measurement of heat…

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Temperature is defined as the average amount of kinetic energy that an object has. When an object has a great amount of kinetic energy, then its molecules move around a lot. This can be explained by thermal energy, or heat. Heat is produced when internal energy travels from an area of relatively high temperature to an area of relatively low temperature. This internal energy is then called thermal energy. Higher temperatures are associated with higher amounts of thermal energy and thermal…

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Kinetics of a Particle: Work and Energy and Planar Kinetics of a Rigid Body: Work and Energy. Kinetics of a particle: work and energy shows the particle moving when forces are applied to it and produces work and energy. Meanwhile under planar kinetics of a rigid body shows the rigid body on the plane when forces are applied and produces work and energy. There are similarities and differences between both of it. Kinetics of a particle Planar kinetics of a rigid body Similarities - Conservation…

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both are the foundation for it, and what will eventually bring it to its end. First, it is important to give a brief introduction of the concept of energy to then fathom the topics of thermodynamics, entropy, and enthalpy, and their relation to biology. Energy is a seemingly intuitive…

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