Ductus arteriosus

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    Pathophysiology Case Study

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    Pathophysiology One of the babies I cared for today was born at 33 weeks and was born with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). When the baby is in the mother’s uterus, the ductus arteriosus (DA) diverts blood from the pulmonary artery and moves it directly into the aorta, bypassing pulmonary circulation, because the lungs are not functioning and are filled with fluid. The DA opening is possible through the production of prostaglandins in the vessel allowing for it to stay patent (Kim, 2015, p.1). When the fetus is born the DA undergoes a transition, which occurs approximately 15-48 hours after birth and is this when the arteriosus constricts and closes. The blood is no longer shunted from the pulmonary artery to the aorta. Instead, it moves into a normal circulatory pattern. Normal circulation occurs when deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium and moves on through the right side of the heart to the pulmonary system where it is oxygenated and then moves back to the heart and out of the left ventricle to supply oxygen and nutrients throughout the body (Kim, 2016). A PDA occurs when the DA fails to close completely after delivery. When the DA vessel does not constrict and close, a left-to-right…

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    The thought of a baby being born often warms the hearts of the parents to be. Hoping for the best in the creation and birth of their unborn child. It is until this moment that a parents’ world comes crashing down; the moment the doctor tells them that their precious child has a congenital cardiovascular defect known as Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). The American heart Association describes the ductus arteriosus as a “hole that allows the blood to skip the circulation to the lungs”( The American…

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    Premature Birth Effects

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    infections. He or she will be given extra nutrition to help with growth and development. There is also a risk of brain injury in babies born at this time, so they will be monitored. Short-Term Effects Having a premature birth can cause both short and long term effects on the baby. Some short term effects include problems with breathing, the heart, the brain, temperature control, and blood. When a baby is born too early, the lungs are not yet fully developed. If the baby is not getting enough…

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    Preterm Delivery

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    Preterm delivery is a terrible problem that plagues the United States, as well as many other countries worldwide. Preterm delivery of infants remains one of the most intractable problems that contributes to perinatal morbidity and mortality (Slattery & Morrison, 2002). This issue contributes to a large amount of cost towards the health industry. The definition of preterm delivery is, “…those [deliveries] that occur at less than 37 weeks’ gestational age; however, the low-gestational…

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    Heart Murmur Case Study

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    be stopped immediately. She respiratory status, heart rate, blood pressure, echocardiogram and heart sounds should be done routinely during therapy. Davis drug guide 9. If undetected and untreated, how might this baby’s condition have progressed? (1 point) If this is left untreated she could develop high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). This happens when too much blood circulating through the heart’s main arteries through a patent ductus arteriosus can lead to pulmonary…

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    Fetal circulation differs greatly from that of a newborn heart. Although, outwardly appearances may seem similar. By taking an internal look we may be able to distinguish four adaptations that fetal hearts undergo while in utero. First, we must understand that the fetus receives all blood and nutrients from the parental placenta. The fetus receives this blood from the placenta through the umbilical vein. This is the first adaptation that we see in the fetal cardiovascular circulatory system.…

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    Fetal circulation of blood is much different than that of newborns or adults because a fetus is still receiving nutrients, oxygen and blood from the mother’s placenta, so the placenta does a lot of the work that later on the lungs will take over. There are also other organs that are not fully developed within the fetus and therefore cannot be used or circulated with blood yet, because of this there are specific vessels that direct blood to other areas that in a newborn and adult will not go to.…

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    ROP is a multifactorial disease. Low gestational age, low birth weight, sepsis, oxygen therapy, respiratory distress syndrome, and blood transfusion have been suspected to influence the incidence of ROP. The most significant risk factors for development of ROP were low gestational age and low birth weight, as shown in many studies. In our study, low gestational age, sepsis, oxygen therapy, and frequency of blood transfusions were found to be risk factors for development of ROP independently.…

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    The second shunt the ductus arteriosus protects the lungs against circulatory overload and allows the right ventricle to strengthen. The last shunt, the ductus venosus is a fetal blood vessel connecting the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava. The ductus venosus carries mostly oxygenated blood and is regulated via a sphincter. . In addition, the placenta connects to the fetus via an umbilical cord, which is made up of the umbilical vein and the two umbilical arteries. Thus, there are…

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    Placenta Case Studies

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    that the blood from the right atrium travels directly to the left atria by use of the foramen ovale and then goes in the vicinity of the pulmonary circulation system. The ductus arteriosus maneuvers blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta. Blood is then sent to the heart muscle and brain from the aorta. The blood will then go back to the right atrium of heart passing through the superior vena cava. The majority of the blood goes around the lungs through the ductus arteriousus to the…

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