intentional fallacy comes into play, the idea that a work is a separate entity from the creator and their own ideas and so assessments of literary works by readers are more important than those by the author. The original intent is discounted or restricted and instead the audience is at liberty…
Once the model was created the formula was used. Finally, a formula was created that could remove the risk from investments. Many financial derivatives were invented to exploit the BS formula. So after the academics received the Nobel price, LTCM (long term capital management) was created (smart guys going to the market). In 1995 the hedge fund LTCM (long term capital management) was created. The Nobel prize winners had no problem raising the capital and became what could be the team of the…
proportional constant (often negligible), hv is photon energy, EQD is bandgap energy, n based on the transition type (n = 1/2 for direct allowed transitions), and α is absorption coefficient. Kubelka-Munk Equation (3): approximation of α .5 f(R)=(1-R)2/R=k/s (3) Where R is reflectance, k is the molar absorption coefficient, and is scattering coefficient. However, this method…
The fundamental theorem of Calculus: The fundamental theorem of calculus asserts the interrelated properties of integration and differentiation. It says that a function when differentiated, can be brought back by integrating (anti-derivative) or a function when integrated, can be brought back by differentiation. First theorem: Let f be a function that is integrable on [a,x] for each x in [a,b], then let c be such that a≤c≤b and define a new function A as follows, A(x)=∫_c^x▒f(x)dt, if a≤x≤b.…
For the application of Hopf’s bifurcation theory to the system (29) (see [Marsden J.E., M. Mckracken, 1976]), it is required to satisfy the following transversality condition (34) Substituting , and into (31), and calculating the derivatives with respect to , we obtain (35) where Since , we have , and . Hence there is a Hopf bifurcation at . We have the following result: Theorem 13. Suppose holds. Then the system (29) undergoes a Hopf…
What are the factors affecting the prices of options? Explain the assumptions in the Black-Scholes model. In order to understand the factors that affect the prices of options, we need to understand what options are and how they work. Options are derivative assets. According to a California-based company called Optionetics (website: www.optionetics.com), "options are the most versatile trading instruments ever invented". This means, that you aren 't limited to making a profit only when the market…
by developing the principles of modern physics. On 1661, Newton entered University of Cambridge’s Trinity College in a program similar to a work-study program, as his uncle was pushing him to do so. He spent all his free time reading from the modern philosopher and the result was amazing. On 1665, Newton approached mathematics with a new perspective: infinitesimal calculus. He started developing the theory of calculus that Englishmen John Wallis and Isaac Barrow was working on earlier. Thus,…
"I will be happy to give you a retainer of 300 pounds, beginning with the first of January of this year ... I promise shortly to increase this retainer, which I know is very modest, as soon as my affairs are somewhat straightened out ... I am not so unreasonable as to demand in return all of your time, but I will ask you to give me at intervals some hours of your time to work on what I request and also to communicate to me your discoveries, at the same time asking you not to disclose any of them…
use of sophisticated financial instruments to reduce the foreign exchange risk. One example of natural hedge is companies try to match revenues with expenditures in the same currency. In other words, companies require their customers to pay them in the same currency as their expenditures. Moreover, companies can build their manufacturing plant in the foreign country so that production costs are in the same currency as sales. With the increase in hedging costs, Airbus was looking for natural…
Semra Özal CONNECTIONS OF LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS Logarithm and exponential functions have close relationship and they are inverse function of each other in a way. Before explicitly clarifying this inverse relationship, we should analyze their definitions. Logarithm means, in mathematics, “The exponent that indicates the power to which a base number is raised to produce a given number “2 Exponential function means that “mathematical function in which an…