What is Cryptography? When a message is encoded so it becomes unreadable while making sure only the intended receiver is capable of decoding it back into its original form is what we commonly known as Cryptography. It is done by means of an encryption and decryption algorithm (often the same implemented in reverse order) and very often using a secret key. Some of the early cryptographic systems kept the algorithm itself secret and did not use a key (Stallings, 2014). Only when using a secret key one can convert cipher text back into a more familiar readable form. Another way to achieve this is by using computerized aid devices, which use mathematical formulas to change text from one form to another (Stallings, 2014). The Basic Elements of a…
The Beale Ciphers have been around for over one hundred years and only the second one has been solved. The Beale Ciphers are a set of three Cipher texts that were made by Thomas J. Beale later to be published by an unnamed friend. According to the story, Beale was chosen to be the leader of a group of thirty men going on a buffalo hunt. They were surprised to find that they had stumbled on a huge gold and silver mine. They mined for 18 months while hunting moose before they decided to head back.…
Modern cryptography uses binary arithmetic because that is what computers use, and cannot be represented in the previous methods of encrypting. The different types of ciphers used in modern cryptography are made for computers, and that is why there is such vast use of them today. Stream ciphers and block ciphers are the two classes of algorithms (Gove 1). “Stream ciphers operate on essentially continuous streams of plain text represented as 1s and 0s, while Block ciphers operate on blocks of…
Weerasinge’s research paper is done based on two measurement criteria under two circumstances: First circumstance: Variable is the input plaintext size (input is given as text files, size is measured in kilobytes) Second circumstance: Variable is the input plaintext length, i.e. input character length (inputs are assumed as passwords) Two measurement criteria: * Secrecy of Ciphers (According to Shannon’s secrecy theorems) * Encryption…
provides the components that are listed above for the network security. The major parts of cryptography explained below: Encryption and Decryption: Encryption is the element of cryptography in which our plain text information converts into the un-readable content by using an algorithm (cipher) before sending the packet across the network and vice versa. Encryption is used in everyday life. It widely used among transactions done over the internet. It’s also used to protect data transferred…
1.1 Overview Cryptography is the science/practice of “writing in secret” (“crypto”= “secret, “graphy” = “writing”). Cryptographic functions are generally defined as algorithms or protocols, rules that govern how data is processed to turn plaintext (unencrypted data) into cipher text (encrypted data) [1]. Cryptography is a method of storing and transmitting data in a form that only those it is intended for can read and process. It is considered a science of protecting information by…
Privacy.” It is a hybrid encryption since PGP is a combination of some best features of both original and public key cryptography. If you encrypt the plaintext using PGP, it firstly compresses the plaintext and by data compression, modem transmission time and disk space are saved. Also, data compression strengthens cryptographic security. Next, Patterns in the plaintext are reduced by compression, by doing so, there will be a significant enhancing resistance to cryptanalysis. Then, PGP creates a…
In a general level the functions of scrambling and unscrambling messages can be called encryption and decryption, thought depending on which technique is used there exists a more specific vocabulary. The opposite of cryptography is cryptanalysis, the science of breaking codes and ciphers. One of the earliest cryptanalytic techniques is frequency analysis, a process which was first described by “the philosopher of Arabs, al-Kindi” in the ninth century. The basis of this technique is the analysis…
Holmes/Scarpetta Project- The Valley of Fear What discipline was involved? Digital Forensics (cryptology)- The process of encrypting messages and examining digital media forensically to find, analyze, and present facts and opinions. What was the equipment used? The ciphers represent the pages of previous editions of Whitaker's Almanack. The first number represented the page number in the Almanac. The second number, C2, was the column number on the page in the book. The numbers that…
message needs to look innocuous and hence cryptography fails. Steganography comes to the price¬owners, rescue. The prisoners’, with a strong intention of planning an escape, have already exchanged a code word before they were captured. They use this codeword to secretly exchange messages in the process deceiving the warden by hiding the message in plain sight. The codeword lets them embed and extract information. A possible technique would be to use the code word as a position compass for hiding…