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251 Cards in this Set

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-precaution against unnecessary musculoskeletal injury and soreness
-may enhance certain aspects of performance
-prepares body physiologically ofr physical work
-increases metabolic processes , core temperature, and muscle elasticity
warm up
-essential component of workout
-brings body back to resting state
-5-10 minutes in duration
-often ignored
-decreased muscle soreness following training if time used to stretch after workout
cool-down
ability to move a joint(s) smoothly through a full range of motion (ROM)
flexibility
__ results in:
-decreased permormance capabilities
-uncoordinated/awkward movements
-predisposes athlete to injury
decreased range of motion
factors that limit fleibility
-bony structures
-tissue approximation
-excessive fat
-muscle and tendon lengths
-connective tissue
-scarring and contractures
-skin
-neural tissue tightness
-dynamic flexibility
-ability to move a joint with little resistance
active range of motion
-static flexibility
-motion of joint to end points without muscle contractoin
passive range of motion
-the muscle producing movement
-quadreiceps contract to produce knee extension
agonist
-muscle undergoing stretch during movement
antagonist
a protractor that utilizes alignment of two arms parallel to longitudinal axis of two segments involved in motion
goniometer
the ability to generate force against resistance
strength
the relationship between strength and time
power
repetitive muscular contractions (increase strength=increase endurance)
muscular endurance
-no length change occurs during contraction
-pro: quick, effective, chap, good for rehab
-con: only works at one point in ROM
isometric contraction
two kinds of isotonic contractions
concentric and eccentric
shortening of muscle with contraction in an effort to overcome more resistance
concentric
lengthening of muscle with contraction because load is greater than force being produced
eccentric
muscle fibers that are:
-fatigue reistant
-time necessary to produce force is greater
-long duration, aerobic type activites
-generally major constituent of postural muscles
slow twitch (Type 1)
muscle fibers that are:
-fatigualble
-anaerobic in nature
-high force in short amount of time
-produces powerful movements
fast twitch (type II)
says that activity must be increased and upgraded constantly in order to gain a higher response from the body
-work at or near maximum capacity
-applicable to conditioning and training
overload principle
isotonic training=
resistance training
-free exercise
-isotonic training
-gravity's involvement determines level of intensity
-full range of motion, may incorporate holding phase
-pull-ups, push ups, back extensions, leg extensions
calisthenic strengthening exercises
-rapid stretch, eccentric contraction followed by a rapid concentric contraction to create a forceful explosive movement
plyometric exercise
health conditions brought on due to heat
hyperthermia
-benign condition associated with red raised rash, combined with preckling with sweat
-result of continuously wet, un-evaporated sweat
-prevent by continually toweling body
heat rash
-associated with rapid fatigue and overexposure, standng in heat for a long period of time
-caused by peripheral vasodilation or pooling of blood in extremities resulting in dizziness and fainting
-treat by placing athlete in cool environment, cosuming fluids and laying down
heat syncope (heat collapse)
-painful muscle spasms due to excessive water loss and electrolyte imbalance
-occurs in individual in good shape that overexert themselves
-return to play unlikely
heat cramps
-result of inadequate fluid replacement
-unable to sustain adequate cardiac output
-core temp will be <104
-breakdown of thermoregulatory mechanism
-drastic measures must be taken to cool athlete
-athlete should avoid exercise for a minimum of one week and gradually return to full practice
exertional heat stroke
-fluid electrolyte disorder resulting in abnormally low concentration of sodium in blood
-caused by ingesting too much fluid before during and after exercise
exertional hyponatremia
ways to prevent heat illness:
-common sense and precaution
-fluid and electrolyte replacement
-using sports drinks
-gradual acclimatization
-uniform selection
-weight records
the body requires __L of water daily when engaged in minimal activity
2.5
__ drop in body weight (due to dehydration) results in thirst
1-2%
early pre-season training and graded intesnsity changes re recommended with progressive exposure over __ day period
7-10
__ of acclimatization can be achieved during the first 5-6 days with 2 hour morning and afternoon practice session
80%
avoid __ suits
rubberized
a __ loss in BW will reduce blood volue and could be a health threat
3-5%
health problems due to cold
hypothermia
-involves ears, nose, chin, fingers, and toes
-occurs with high wind and or severe cold
-skin appears firm with cold painless areas that may peel and blister
-treat with firm pressure, blowing warm air or hands in armpits
-do not rub
frost nip
__ reslut from prolonged exposure causing redness and sweling, tingling pain in toes and figers
-due to poor circulation
chilblains
__ involves only skin and subcutaneous tissue
-appears pale hard waxy and cold
-when rewarming, area will feel numb, then sting and burn
superficial frostbite
-indicates frozen skin requireing hospitalization
-rapid rewarming necessary
-tissue blotchy red, swollen, painful, may become gangranous
deep frostbite
#2 cause of death by weather phenomena
lightening
in a lightning storm, you want to go to a facility that has __
plumbing
if the flash-bang count is 30 it indicates __
inherent danger
if the flash-bang count is 15 seconds everyone should __
leave the field
__ is the return stroke of the lightning going back up after it has already hit the ground
visible lightning
a hand-held intrument that is albe to detect storm occuring within 40 miles, gives directin and level of activity
lightning detector
desynchronization of biological and biophysical time clock
circadian dysrhythmia
the body immediatly adapts to __
protein metabolism
the body adapts to __ over 8 days
body temp
the body adapts to __ after three weeks
adrenal hormones
-durable, offers great consistancy, usable with inclement weather, requiers less maintenence
-better speed and resiliency
synthtic turf
most recentkind of synthetic turf
resilient infill turf
if equipment results in inury due to defect or inadequacy for intended use, the __ is liable
manufacturer
if equipment is modified the __ is liable
modifer
association established for voluntary testing standards in an effort to reduce head injuries
National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE)
T/F helmets prevent concussions?
False!!!
each football helmet must have a visible exterior __
warning label
four categories of face protection:
-face gaurd
-throat protection
-mouth gaurds
-ear gaurds
three types of mouth gaurds
-stock
-commercial
-custom
shoulderpads that are bulkier and used by those engaged in blocking and tackling
cantilevered shoulderpads
shoulderpads that do not restrict motion
non-cantilevered shoulderpads
-premade and packaged vs constructed according to the individual
-can be used immediately but hard to fit well vs specifically sized and designed for protective and supportive needs
off the self vs customized equipment
when fitting a helmet, head/hair should be __ to simulate sweat
wet
how can you test if a helmet is snug fitting?
the credit card test
jaw pads in helmets are essential for preventing __
lateral rocking
research has indicated to that a baseball helmet does __ to dissipate energy of a ball
little
reduced the number of facial injuries but increased the number of concussions because head is most often used in initial contact
face protection
in high school hockey, __ are required (with some plastic coating) that meet hockey equipment certifications council and American society for testing material
face masks
required in collision and high-velocity sports
-girdle and belt types
hips and butt pads
there is significant debate over the efficacy of __
ankle supports
type of brace:
-widely used following surgery
-allows controlled progressive immobilization
-adjustable
rehabilitative
type of brace:
-used during and following rehab to provide functional support
-ready made and customized
functional brace
type of brace:
-used by those that have sustained collateral ligament injuries
-some are also used to provide support in those that have patellofemoral conditions
neoprene brace
an athletic trainer should b able to __ and __ protective devices
design, construct
soft material for construction of protective and supportive devices that is versatile, can be used for protection or absorption
gauze
soft material for construction of protective and supportive devices that is cheapest and more widely used (absorbent, holds emollients and offers mild padding)
cotton
soft material for construction of protective and supportive devices that is made of matted wool fibers, pressed in a variety of thicknesses
felt
used in orthotics, braces, splints, and for shielding body parts
-casting support for foot, protect contusions
thermomoldable plastics
state of being legally responsible for the harm one causes to another person
liability
the failure to use ordinary or reasonable care
negligence
-assumes that a person is of ordinary and reasonable prudence
-bring commonsense approach to the situation
-must operate within the appropriate limitations of ones educational background
standards of reasonable care
legal wrongs committed against a person (liability results)
torts
failure to perform legal duty (i.e. fail to refer)
nonfeasance
performs action that is not his/hers to legally perform (i.e. perform advanced treatment leading to complications)
malfeasance
the athletic trainer has a duty to provide __ to athletes
coverage
individual possessing higher level of training will possess higher level of __
competence
provides limited protection against legal liability to one that provides care should something go wrong
good samaritan law
-specific length of time an individual can sue for injury resulting from negligence
-varies by state but generally ranges from one to three years
-clock begins at the time the negligent act results in suit or from the time injury is discovered following negligent act
-minors generally have an extension
statutes of limitations
-athlete is made aware of inherent risks involved in sport and voluntarily decides to continue participating
-expressed in written waiver or implied from conduct of athlete once participation begins
-con be used as defense against an athletes negligence suit
assumption of risk
__ does not excuse overseers from exhibiting reasonable care and prudence in regards to conduct of activities or foreseeing potential hazards
assumption of risk
in order to reduce risk this person should:
warn athletes of potential dangers involved in sport
-supervise regularly and attentively
-prepare and condition athletes
-instruct athletes on skills of their respective sports
-ensure proper and safe equipment and facilities
coach
in order to reduce risk this person should:
-work to establish good working relationships with athletes, parents, and coworkers
-establish policies regarding athletic training facility and coverage
-develop emergency plan of action
-know the medical history of athletes
-maintain adequate records
athletic trainer
clear written out statements of basic rules
policies
describe the process of how follow rules
procedures
determines:
-why there is a need for such a program
-function of program within scope of athletic program
-extent of health care program
-written mission statement to focus direction of program
strategic plan development
-appropriate coverage of facility and sports
-setup of treatments, rehab, game and practice coverage vary
facility personnel coverage
-certified athletic trainer or at least a student should attend all practices and games
-different institutions ahve different levels of coverage based on personnel risks involved with sports
sports coverage
cleaning responsibilities are divided between __ staff and __ personnel
athletic training, maintenance
sweep floors daily, clean and disinfect sinks and tubs, mop hydrotherapy room, empty wast baskets
maintenance crew
clean treatment tables, disinfect hydrotherapy room and modalities daily, clean equipment regularly
athletic training staff
accessibility to __ in all major areas of activity is a must
phones
radios, cell and digital phones provide a great deal of __
flexibility
referrals should be made with assistance from a __
physician
__ is necessary when dealing with psychological and sociological events
parental involvement
head athletic trainer must serve as a __ and work to enhance professional development of staff
supervisor
__ should take place regularly
performance evaluations
area with centrally located sloping floor to drain, equipped with 2-3 whirlpools, shelving and storage space and outlets above the floor
hydrotherapy area
area that provides adequate space and equipment to perform reconditioning of injuries
exercise rehabilitation center
3-4 taping tables and storage cabinets to treat athletes with proximity to a sink
taping, bandaging, and orthotics area
space for physician to work which may hold exam table, lockable storage, sink, telephone, refrigerator
physicians exam room
space devoted to record keeping which may include filing system or computer based database, that allows access only to medical personnel
records area
training rooms often lack __
ample storage space
-space at least 10x12 feet is ample
-all areas should be supervised without leaving office space (glass partitions)
-equipment should include desk, chair, tack board, telephone, computer, and independent locking system
athletic trainers office
separate room that can be secured for storing and administrating medications (records must be maintained concerning administration)
pharmacy area
if space permits, must be accessible to individuals with various injuries with graduated depth and non-slip surface
rehabilitation pool
separate room with lead shielding in walls, large enough to house necessary equipment
X-ray room
-major responsibility of AT
-accurate and up-to-date is the rule, not the exception
record keeping
-regulates dissemination of personal history information (PHI) by coaches, ATC's physicians and other members of the sports medicine team
-gaurantee's athlete access to information and control over disclosure
-athlete may provide written authorization for release of information
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
-law protecting privacy of student education records
-provides parents with certain reights with respect to childs educational records
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
when the child turns __ FERPA rights are transferred to the student
18
-a crucial test with the purpose to identify athlete that may be at risk
-should include: medical history, physical exam, orthopedic screening, wellness screening
-establishes a baseline
satisfies insurance and liability issue
pre-participation examinations
__ serve as future references, can shed light on events that may be hazy following an incident, are necessary in litigation, and should be filed in the athletic training room
injury reports
-keep track of AT services so daily treatments can be recorded
-can be used as legal documentation in instances of litigation
treatment log
contains contact information for family, personal, physician, and insurance information
personal information card
injuries and progress should be monitored by athletic trainer and recorded with SOAP not format. SOAP stand for __
S: subjective (history of injury/illness)
O: Objective (information gathered during evaluation)
A: Assessment (opinion of injury based on information gained during evaluation)
P: Plan (short and long term goals of rehab)
inventory must be taken __ in order to effectively replenish supplies
yearly
-written consent is required
-waiver must be signed for any release
release of medical records
-broad field of medical practices related to physical activity and sport
-involves a number of specialties involving active populations
-typically classified as relating to performance enhancement or injury care and management
sports medicine
what year was the NATA founded? And what does it stand for?
1950, National Athletic Trainers Association
what year was the IFSM founded? and what does it stand for?
1928, International Federation of Sports Medicine
when was the NSCA founded and what does it stand for?
1978, National Strength and Conditioning Association
when was NCAA CCSMAS founded and what does it stand for?
1985, NCAA Committee on Competitive Safegaurds and Medical Aspects of Sports
purpose is to enhance the quality of health care for athletes and those engaged in physical activity, and to advance the profession of athletic training through education and research in the prevention, evaluation, management and rehabilitation of injuries
National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA)
NATA now has __ members
30,000
-interested in the study of all aspects of sports
-membership composed of medical doctors, doctors of philosophy, physical educators, athletic trainers, coaches, exercise physiologists, biomechanists, and others interested in sposts
-18,000 members
american college of sports medicine
what are the two kinds of accreditation you can get from the NSCA?
-Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS)
-NSCA Certified Personal Trainer (NSCA-CPT)
-collects and develops pertinent information regarding desirable training methods, prevention and treatment of sports injuries, and utilization of sound safety measures
-supervises drug education and drug testing programs
NCAA Committee on Competitive Safegaurds and Medical Aspects of Sports
a person charged with injury prevention and heath care provision for the athlete
athletic trainer
AT's deal with the athlete and injury from its __ until the athlete returns to full competition
inception
-prevention of AI
-clincal eval and diagnosis
-immediate care of injuries
-treatment, rehab, and reconditioning of AI
-health care administration
-professional responsibilities
roles and responsibilities of the AT
-risk management
-pathology of injuries and illnesses
-assessment and evaluation
-acute care
-pharmacological aspects of injury and illness
-theraputic modalities and exercise
AT education competencies
major concern on the part of the ATC should be __
the athlete
ATC must keep parents informed, particularly in the __ setting
secondary school
AT works under direct supervision of a __
pysician
why have there been dramatic transformation in employment settings for the ATC since 1950?
the creation of the NATA
AMA officially recognized athletic training as an allied health profession
june 1990
entry level college and university athletic training education programs at both undergraduate and graduate levels are now accredited by __
Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education (CAATE)
advanced graduate AT programs are designed for people that are already __
certified ATC's
requirements for certification as an AT are set by the __
National Athletic Trainer's Association Board of Certification (NATABOC)
__ is a prerequisite for licensure in most states
BOC certification
ATC's are required to go to __ CEU's over the course of 3 years
75
__ will become the rule, not the exception for ATC's in the future
third party billing (billing insurance)
there is a potential for expansion of AT's in the __
military
physical injury or wound sustained in sport, produced by internal or external force
trauma
results from force or mechanical energy that changes state of rest or uniform motion of matter
mechanical injury
injury in sports can be the result of __ directed on the body or can occur within the body __
external forces, internally
force that pulls and stretches tissues
tension
pulling tissue beyond yield point resulting in damage
stretching
force that results in tissue crush
compression
force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue
shearing
force on a horizontal beam that places stress within the structure
bending
two kinds of soft or non-bony tissue
inert and contractile
ligaments, skin, cartilage, capsules, fascia, dura mater, and nerve roots
inert tissues
muscles, tendons and bony insertions
contractile tissue
friction, scraping, compression, tearing, cutting, and penetrating
skin injuries due to mechanical forces
continuous rubbing over skin surface that causes a collection of fluid below or within epidermal layer
friction blister
skin is scraped against rough surface resulting in capillary exposure due to skin removal
abrasion
compression or crush injury of skin surface that produces bleeding under the skin
skin bruise (contusion)
wound in which skin has been irregularly torn
laceration
skin that is torn by same mechanism as laceration to the extent that tissue is completely ripped from source
skin avulsion
wound in which skin has been sharply cut
incision
penetration of the skin by a sharp object
puncture
-result of sudden blow to body
-con be both deep and superficial
contusions
in a contusion, a __ results from blood and lymph flow into surrounding tissue
hematoma
a localization of extravasated vlood into clot encapulated by connective tissue
hematoma
-a stretch or rip to muscle or adjacent tissue
strains
some fibers stretched or actually torn resulting in tenderness and pain on active ROM, movement painful but full range presnet
Grade 1 muscle strain
number of fibers have been torn and active contraction is painful, usually a depression or divot is palpable, some swelling and discoloration result
Grade II muscle strain
complete rupture of muscle or musculotendinous junction, significant impairment, with initially a great deal of pain that diminishes due to nerve damage
Grade III muscle strain
-wavy parallel collagenous fivers organized in bundles
-can produce and maintian 8700-18000 lbs/in squared
tendons
the breaking point of a tendon occurs at __ of increased length
6-8%
tears generally occur in __ and not in tendon
muscle
a reflex reaction caused by trauma
muscle spasms
alternating involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations in quick succession
clonic muscle spasm
rigid contraction that lasts a period of time
tonic muscle spasm
-inflammation of muscle tissue
-fibrositis or inflammation of connective tissue
-plantar fascitis
myositis/fascitis
-gradual onset, with diffuse tenderness due to repeated microtrauma and degenerative changes
-obvious signs of swelling and pain
tendinitis
-inflammation of synovial sheath
-in acture case-rapid onset, crepitus, and diffuse swelling
-chronic cases result in thickening of tendon with pain and crepitus
tenosynovitis
-bones are hold together by a fibrous cuff called the __
-maintains relative joint position
joint capsule
sheets or bundles or collagen that form connection between bones
-intrinsic (inside the capsule) and extrinsic (outside the capsule
ligaments
type of synovial joint:
allows movement in all planes
ball and socket
type of synovial joint:
allows for flexion and extension
hinge
type of synovial joint:
rotation about the axis
pivot
type of synovial joint:
elliptical convex and concave articulation
ellipsoidal
type of synovial joint:
reciprocally convex-concave
saddle
type of synovial joint:
all sliding back and forth
gliding
result of traumatic joint twist that causes stretching or tearing of connective tissue
sprains
some pain, minimal loss of function, no abnormal motion, and mild point tenderness
Grade 1 sprain
pain, moderate loss of function, swelling, and instability
Grade II sprain
extremely painful, inevitable loss of function, severe instability and swellig, and ma also represent subluxation
grade III sprain
1. loss of limb function
2. gross deformity
3. swelling and point tenderness
factors associated with dislocations
__ is the only absolute way to diagnose a dislocation
X-ray
-bone shaft, hollow and cylindrical
-covered in compact bone
-medullary cavity contains yellow marrow and lined by endosteum
diaphysis
-composed of cancellous bone and has hyaline cartilage covering
-provides areas for muscle attachment
epiphysis
-dense, white fibrous covering which penetrates bone via sharpey fibers
-contains blood vessels and osteoblasts
periosteum
inflammation of the periosteum
-result primarily of contusions and produces rigid skin overlying muscle (acute and chronic)
periostitis
partial or complete disruption that can be either closed or open (through skin)
-serious musculoskeletal condition
-fracture occurs either directly (point of applied force) or indirectly
acute bone fractures
no specific cause but with a number of possible causes ie overload due to muscle contraction, altered stress distribution etc
stress fractures
-short onset and duration
-change in hemodynamics, production of exudate, granular leukocytes
acute inflammation
-long onset and duration
-presence of non=granular leukocytes and extensive scar tissue
chronic inflammation
rubor
redness
tumor
swelling
color
heat
dolor
pain
functio laesa
loss of function
three phases of teh inflammatory response
1. inflammatory response phase
2. fibroblastic repair phase
3. maturation and remodeling phase
Phase of inflammation:
-healing begins immediately
-injury results in altered metabolism and liberation of various materials
-initial reaction oby leukocytes and phagocytic cells
phase one
when is this in the inflammatory response?
-vasocontriction and coagulation occur to seal blood vessels and chemical mediators are released
-immediately followed by vasodilation or blood vessel
first hour
when is this in the inflammatory response?
-vasodilation decreases blood flow, increased blood viscosity resulting in edema (swelling)
-chemical mediators
-swelling increases due to increased vessel permeability
second hour
when is this in the inflammatory response?
-platelets adhere to exposed collagen leading to formation of plug clot
clot formation
clots obstruct lymphatic fluid drainage and aid in __ injury
localizing
clot formation requires the conversion of __ to __
fibrinogen to fibrin
-occurs when acute inflammatory response does not eliminate injuring agent
-tissue not restored to normal physiologic state
-involves replacement of leudocytes with macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells
chronic inflammation
typically associated with overuse, overload, cumulative microtrauma
chronic inflammation
three phases of scare tissues:
-resolution
-restoration
-regeneration
complaints of pain and tenderness gradually subside during this period
fibroplasia
-long-term process
-realignment of collagen relative to applied tensile forces
-continued breakdown and synthesis of collagen=increased strength
-tissue will gradually assume normal appearance
-may require several years to complete
phase III: maturation and remodeling
raised scars
keloids
-limited in capacity to heal
-little or no direct blood supply
-chondrocyte and matrix disruption result in variable healing
cartilage
__ that fails to clot and has no perichondrium heals very slowly
articular cartiage
if area involves subchondral bone (enhanced blood supply) __ tissue is present and healing proceeds normally
granulation
-follows similar healing course as other vascular tissues
-proper care will result in acute repair and remodeling phases in same time required by other vascular tissues
-repair phase will involve random laying down of collagen which, as scar forms, will mature and realign in reaction to joint stresses and strain
ligaments
-when injured, initial bleding followed by proliferation of ground substance and fibroblast
-collagen will matur and orient along lines of tension
-healing could last 6-8 weeks depending on whats injured
skeletal muscle healing
-requires dense fibrous union of separated ends
-abundance of collagen is required for good tensile strength
tendon
nerves heal at a rate of __ mm per day
3-4
NSAIDS
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents
major aim involves pain free movemnt, full strength power and full extensibility of associated muscles
therapeutic exercise
5 steps of fracture healing
-hematoma formation
-cellular proliferation
-callus formation
-ossificaiton
-remodeling
when bone dies and union/healing will not occur (head of femur, navicular of wrist, talus, bone fragments)
avascular necrosis
3 ways bone may not heal properly
-poor blood supply
-poor immobilization
-infection
-major indicator of injury
-both individual and subjective
pain
fast pain is localized and carried through __
A-delta axons
slow pain is percceived as aching throbbing or burning, transmitted through __
C fibers
pain less than 6 months in duration
acute pain
pain longer than 6 months
chronic pain
pain which occurs away from actual site of injury/irritation
referered pain
__ are sensative to pressure and can produce paresthesia
A-alpha fibers
pain theory that says: pain goes through gate and brain decides
central biasing theory
pain theory that says:
pain waves go to brain which releases B-endorphins
B-endorphin
you must break the __ cycle through treatment to cure pain
pain-spasm-hypoxia-pain