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182 Cards in this Set

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Theory stating that dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals generated from activity in the lower part of the brain.
activation-synthesis theory
Either a physical or a psychological dependence, or both, on a drug.
addiction
A disorder that involves long-term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic beverages and that impairs the drinker's health and social relationships.
alcoholism
States of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities.
automatic processes
Depressant drugs that decrease the activity of the central nervous system.
barbiturates
Periodic physiological fluctuations in the body.
biological rhythms
A daily behavioral or physiological cycle, such as the sleep/wake cycle.
circadian rhythm
Theory proposing that dreaming can be understood by applying the same cognitive concepts that are used in studying the waking mind.
cognitive theory of dreaming
Awareness of external events and internal sensations, including awareness of the self and thoughts about one's experiences; this awareness occurs under a condition of arousal.
consciousness
The most alert states of consciousness.
controlled processes
Psychoactive drugs that slow down mental and physical activity.
depressants
Psychoactive drugs that modify a person's perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real.
Hallucinogens
An altered state of consciousness or simply a psychological state of altered attention and expectation, in which the individual is unusually receptive to suggestions.
hypnosis
Opium and its derivatives; they depress the central nervous system's activity.
opiates
The physiological need for a drug, accompanied by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms, such as pain and craving, when the drug is discontinued.
physical dependence
Substances that act on the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.
psychoactive drugs
The strong desire to repeat the use of a drug for emotional reasons, such as a feeling of well-being and stress reduction.
psychological dependence
Rapid eye movement sleep; stage 5 of sleep, in which dreaming occurs.
REM sleep
Perspective that views hypnosis as a normal state in which the hypnotized person behaves the way he or she believes a hypnotized person should behave.
social cognitive behavior view of hypnosis
Psychoactive drugs that increase the central nervous system's activity.
stimulants
James's concept that the mind is a continuous flow of changing sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings.
stream of consciousness
A small structure in the brain that synchronizes its own rhythm with the daily cycle of light and dark based on input from the retina.
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
The need to take increasing amounts of a drug to produce the same effect.
tolerance
Depressant drugs that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation.
tranquilizers
Freud's concept of a reservoir of unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness.
unconscious thought
involves controlled processing, in which individuals actively focus their efforts on attaining a goal; the most alert state of consciousness
higher-level consciousness
includes automatic processing that requires little attention, as well as daydreaming
lower-level consciousness
can be produced by drugs, trauma, fatigue, possibly hypnosis, and sensory deprivation
alerted states of consciousness
can occur when people are awake as well as when they are sleeping and dreaming
subconscious awareness
frued's belief that some unconscious thoughts are too laden with anxiety and other negative emotions for consciousness to admit them
no awareness
state of low-level consciousness that lies between active consciousness and dreaming
daydreaming
mental states that are noticeably different from normal awareness
altered states of consiousness
the subconscious processing that leads to a solution to a problem after a break from conscious thought about the problem
incubation
a term that applies to someone who has been knocked out by a blow or anesthetized or who has fallen into a deep, prolonged unconscious state
unconscious
a natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss of consciousness
sleep
when biological clocks are thrown off their regular schedules they are __
desynchronized
sleep is essential for __
survival
the evolutionary prespective theory states that sleep may have developed becuase animals needed to __
protect themselves at night
a second theory states that sleep may be __
a way to conserve energy
a third theory states that sleep may be __ to the brain and body
restorative
sleep may aid in the brains __
plasticity
high frequency brain waves that reflect concentration and alertness
beta waves
beta waves are more __ than other waves
desynchronous
lower-frequency brain wave patterns associated with being relaxed or drowsy
alpha waves
characterized by drowsy sleep. light sleep lasting up to 10 min; includes theta waves (low frequency, low amplitude)
stage 1 sleep
sudden muscle movements that a person may experience during stage 1 sleep
myoclonic jerks
EEGs of individuals in stage 1 are characterized by __ waves
theta
deeper sleep where muscle activity decreases, and the person is no longer aware of the enviornment characterized by occasional "sleep spindles" (brief high-frequency waves), lasting up to 20 minutes
stage 2 sleep
a sudden increase in wave frequency seen in stage 2 sleep
sleep spindles
progressively more muscle relaxation and emergence of delta waves (slower); lasts up to 40 minutes
stage 3 sleep
the slowest and highest amplitude brain waves during sleep
delta waves
stage 3 and 4 sleep are referred to as __ sleep
delta
deep sleep when sleeper is difficult to rouse; delta waves--large, slow brain waves--occur
stage 4 sleep
after going through stages 1-4, sleepers drift up through the sleep stages toward wakefullness but instead of reentering stage 1 they go to __
REM sleep
stages 1-4 of sleep are referred to as __
non-REM sleep
REM stand for __
Rapid Eye Movment
a normal sleep cycle is going through the 5 stages of sleep __
once
once sleep cycle lasts __ minutes
90-100
you go through __ sleep cycles a night
several
the amount of deep sleep (stages 3 and 4) is much greater in the __ of a nights sleep
first half
most REM sleep occurs toward the __ of a nights sleep when REM stage becomes progressively longer
end
the nights first REM stage might last for __ min, but the final REM stage might continue for as long as an __
10, hour
during a normal night of sleep, individuals will spend about __% of sleep in light sleep (stages 1 and 2), __% in delta or deep sleep, and __% in REM sleep
60, 20, 20
the average amount of sleep decreases with __
age
in all vertebrates, the __ plays a crucial role in sleep and arousal
reticular formation
the important neurotransmitters in sleep are __, __, and __
serotonin, norepinepherine, and acetylcholine
as sleep begins, the level of neurotransmitters __
drop
REM sleep is initiated by a rise in __
acetylcholine
REM sleep ends when there is a rise in __ and __ which will increase the level of forebrain activity nearly to the awakened state
serotonin and norepinepherine
the inability to sleep, can involve a problem in falling asleep, waking up during the night, or waking up too early
insomnia
the formal term for sleepwalking which occurs during the deepest stages of sleep
somnambulism
somnambulism takes place during stages __ sleep
3 and 4
sleep talking is called __
somniloquy
a frightening dream that awakens a dreamer from REM sleep
nightmare
fetures sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear
night terrors
sleep disorder involving the sudden, overpowering urge to sleep, they immediatly enter REM sleep rather than progressing through the first four sleep stages
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder in which individuals stop breathing because the windpipe fails to open or because brain processes involved in respiration fail to work properly
sleep apnea
a device used to treat sleep apnea
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
the sudden sleep-related death of an infant less than one year old
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
according to freud, the surface content of a dream, containing dream symbols tat disguise the dreams true meaning
manifest content
according the freud, a dream's hidden content; its unconscious and true meaning
latent content
when we are awake and alert, our conscious experience tends to be driven by __, which are all the things we see, hear, and respond to
external stimulus
during sleep, according to the activation-synthesis theory, conscious exerience is driven by __ that have no apparent behavioral consequence
internally generated stimuli
supporters of the activation-synthesis theory have suggested that neural networks in other areas of teh forebrain play a significant role in __
dreaming
the reward pathway that is associated with addiction is located in the __ and __
ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens
refers to an overindulgence in caffeine
caffenism
upper, stimulant drugs that people use to boost energy, stay awake, or lose weight.
amphetamines
an illegal drug that comes to the coca plant, native to bolivia and peru
cocaine
MDMA is the scentific name for __
ecstasy
the dried leaves and flowers of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, which originated in cental asia but in now grown in most parts of the world
marijuana
a hallucinogen that even in low doses produces striking perceptual changes
LSD
4 steps to hypnosis
1. minimize distractions
2. tell person to concentrate on something specific
3. informs person what to expect
4. suggests certain events or feelings
the extent to which a persons responses are changed by being hypnotized
hypnotizability
hilgard's view that hypnosis involves a splitting of consciousness into two seperate components, one of which follows the hypnotists;s commands and other of which acts as a "hidden observer"
divided consciousnee view of hypnosis
attaining a peaceful state of mind in which thoughts are not occupied by worry
meditation
a technique practiced by yoga enthusiasts and Buddhist monks
mindfulness meditation
an overwhelming feeling of wellness right before you fall asleep
hypnagogic reverie
The initial learning of the stimulus–response link, which involves a neutral stimulus being associated with an unconditioned stimulus and becoming the conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response.
acquisition (classical conditioning)
The application of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior
applied behavior analysis (behavior modification)
Learning in which a connection, or an association, is made between two events.
associative learning
A theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping.
behaviorism
Learning by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.
classical conditioning
The learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after the pairing of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned response (CR)
A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits the conditioned response after being associated with the unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
A classical conditioning procedure for weakening a conditioned response by associating the fear-provoking stimulus with a new response that is incompatible with the fear.
counterconditioning
The process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to others.
discrimination (classical conditioning)
The tendency to respond to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced.
discrimination (operant conditioning)
The weakening of the conditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
extinction (classical conditioning)
The situation where, because a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced, there is a decreased tendency to perform the behavior.
extinction (operant conditioning)
The tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.
generalization (classical conditioning)
The tendency to give the same response to similar stimuli.
generalization (operant conditioning)
A form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of the problem's solution.
insight learning
The tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning.
instinctive drift
Unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior
latent learning (implicit learning)
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened, whereas behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
law of effect
The phenomenon of learning through experience that outcomes are not controllable.
learned helplessness
A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.
learning
A behavior decreases when a positive stimulus is removed from it.
negative punishment
Following a behavior with the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior.
negative reinforcement
Learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates another's behavior; also called imitation or modeling.
observational learning
Also called instrumental conditioning; a form of learning
operant conditioning
A behavior decreases when it is followed by an unpleasant stimulus.
positive punishment
Following a behavior with a rewarding stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior.
positive reinforcement
The species-specific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others.
preparedness
The use of reinforcers that are innately satisfying.
primary reinforcement
A consequence that decreases the likelihood a behavior will occur.
punishment
The process by which a stimulus or an event strengthens or increases the probability of a behavior or an event that it follows.
reinforcement
Timetables that determine when a behavior will be reinforced.
schedules of reinforcement
The use of reinforcers that are learned or conditioned.
secondary reinforcement
Rewarding approximations of a desired behavior.
shaping
The process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay without further conditioning.
spontaneous recovery
An unlearned response that is automatically elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response (UCR)
A stimulus that produces a response without prior learning.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
the process of learning these associations
conditioning
automatic stimulus-response connections
reflexes
the recovery of the conditions response when the organism is placed in a novel context
renewal
a form of treatment that consists of repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus
aversive conditionsing
a special kind of classical conditioning involving the learned association between a particular tste and nausea
taste aversion
decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations
habituation
behavior that occurs in automatic response to a stimulus such as a nausea producing drug
resondent behavior
the behavior of the organism
operant
an important aspect of classical conditioning in which the occurence of one stimulus can be predicted from the presence of one another
contingency
an organisms learning that it can altogether avoid a negative stimulus by making a particular reponse
avoidance learning
reinforces a behavior after a set number of behaviors
fixed-ratio schedule
a timetable in which behaviors are rewarded an average number of times but on an unpredicatble basis
variable-ratio schedule
reinforces the first behavior after a fixed amount of time has passed
fixed-interval schedule
a timetable in which a behavior is reinforced after a variable amount of time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates behvior
obervational learning
4 main processes involved in observational learning according to Bandura
1. attention
2. retention
3. motor reproduction
4. reinforcement
E C Tolman's idea that much of behabior is goal directed
purposivness of behavior
culture can inluence the __ of learning and the __ to which learning processes are used
content, degree
the way our beliefs about ability dicate what goals we set for ourselves, what we think we can learn, and ultimately what we do learn
midset
a mindset in which peopel believe that their qualities are carved in stone and cannort change
fixed mindset
a mindset in which people believe their qualities can change and improve through their effort
growth mindset
effective stategies for developing a growth mindset
-understand that your intelligence and thinking skills are not fixed but can change
-become passionate about learning and stretch your mind in challenging situations
-think about the growth mindsets of people you admire
what can a rat tell us about stress?
-predictablility
-control
-improvement
-outlets for frustration
a phrase that refers to individual's understanding that they and others think, feel, perceive, and have private experiences
theory of mind
what is used to see if a child has developed the "theory of mind"?
false belief test
cocaine affects __ uptake pumps
dopamine
__ was a famous psychologist who championed LSD as a miracle treatment.
timothy leary
__ showed classical conditioning in dogs.
pavlov
__ conducted the "little albert" study on fear and generalization
B. Watson
__ worked with cats in a puzzle box to prove the law of effect
Thorndike
__ is an important neurotransmitter in reward
dopmaine
__ studied observational learning, ie imitation/modeling
Bandura
__ emphasized the purposiveness of behavior
E. C. Tolman
__ studied insight learning in chimps
kohler
What is the minimum number of hours of sleep that is usually needed for healthy functioning?
8 hours
Which neurotransmitter is most associated with REM sleep?
acetylcholine
Night terrors occur during __, while nightmares occur during __
non-REM sleep, REM sleep
Which neurotransmitter is most affected by alcohol?
GABA
__ has health benefits.
Meditation
thinking about thinking
metacognition
Many individuals who are blind have problems with their __.
circadian rhythms
the two parts of cognition are __ and __
awareness and arousal
__ used the "bobo" doll in the experiment
bandura
Classical conditioning focuses on __, while operant conditioning focuses on __
involuntary responses, voluntary behaviors
states that more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behavior
premacks principle
The time interval between an unconditioned stimulus and a conditioned stimulus is referred to as the __
contiguity
A child is given a gold star when she does well in class. At the end of the week, she can exchange the stars she has earned for treats. The gold star is a(n) __
token reinforcer
You are able to give a friend directions to your house because you have developed a(n) __
cognitive map
who discovered the principle of learned helplessness with dogs?
sieglman